June 14, 2019 15:58

The last group of African entrepreneurs is women, particularly dynamic in Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria and Mali. The latter are mainly active in the textile and distribution sectors. Their role in financial accumulation is such that they have been nicknamed the "Benz chicks" in Togo because of their large Mercedes cars, an external sign of wealth.

June 14, 2019 15:57

On the basis of these two types of "more equitable" cooperation, Africa seeks to get rid of Western control by diversifying its market and resources in foreign direct investment. The results are so far convincing, despite the concerns that this cooperation raises with regard to Chinese and Indian immigration and unfair competition in African markets.

June 14, 2019 15:56

All initiatives that can act as a counterweight to Washington, the current holder of the unipolar world, are welcome. In line with this position, China's interventions in Africa serve to oust Taiwan, promote world peace and establish a strategic partnership around well-understood interests. To this end, China intends to play on three principles: diplomatic security, economic security and another way of doing business.

June 14, 2019 15:55

For China, Africa is not only important because of its oil, precious metals and wood deposits. It is especially so because of diplomatic competitions in the new world order dominated by the United States.

June 14, 2019 15:55

The Chinese intervention is part of the phenomenon of globalization, which has encouraged the opening of China and India to the international market. Africa has thus become a major issue for these two countries, and their political leaders clearly state the reasons for the Chinese and Indian offensive on the continent.

June 14, 2019 15:54

Recently, the Chinese have invested in Africa and have established themselves as the main investors in several economic sectors such as retail trade, mining and public works (Elenga-Ngaporo 2004; International Issues 2005).

June 14, 2019 15:53

These companies were subsequently transformed into new commercial companies, the most important of which are the Société Commerciale de l'Ouest Africain (SCOA) and the Compagnie Française d'Afrique Occidentale (CFAO), as well as a whole range of companies that have emerged from them, such as Total, or that were created through new colonial opportunities.

June 14, 2019 15:51

The French presence on the West African coast dates back to 1787, but only took root in the 19th century with several commercial exploration missions organised by the Ministry of the Navy from 1838 onwards. Thus the French, from companies originating from Bordeaux and Marseille, set up several commercial houses along the coast.

June 14, 2019 15:50

The issue of leaders goes beyond simple political leaders. The challenge of economic and social development is addressed to leaders in both the public sector and the private business sector administration. The real actors in economic development are the managers of companies. These can be classified into several categories:

the old colonial trading companies, many of which continue to control major infrastructure and equipment works, not to mention agricultural export and mining operations;

foreigners in Africa, including the Lebanese, Indo-Pakistani and most recently the Chinese;

the Africans.

June 14, 2019 15:50

he State is the work of foreign powers and the relay of colonial ideology. As a result, the political leaders that Africa has known so far are mostly perceived as mere puppets in the pay of the dominant powers (Le Roy 1997).