Innovative Trends to Make Cities more Sustainable

Although cities and urban areas are on the frontline of the COVID-19 response and recovery, the social and economic impact of the pandemic goes far beyond their boundaries. On the other hand, inequalities between urban and rural areas and even within cities have already been a problem before the pandemic outbreak. The latter pointed out the necessity of tackling such gaps. Deep-rooted inequalities in urban safety, public services, and infrastructure were amplified by the pandemic and increased the financial burden especially for the most vulnerable people.

Hence, there is a growing need for making cities and communities not only more sustainable and inclusive but also healthier.
A report on COVID-19 and Cities issued by the United Nations in July confirmed that an estimated 90 percent of all cases were reported in urban areas. With almost half of the world’s population living in cities, it sounds logical, even though there is no evidence to suggest that density is related to higher virus transmission. Yet many other factors can be related.

People who lack proper housing can’t be expected to adhere to all the COVID-19 hygiene guidelines. According to the UN, about 24-percent of the world’s urban population lives in slums and informal settlements. Without financial support or jobs, vulnerable people are at a higher risk of becoming homeless. On the other hand, numerous women and children have found themselves in abusive situations as they were unable to live their homes or cities because of mobility restrictions.

Long term air pollution has been correlated with a higher COVID-19 mortality rate.

While some surveys show that lockdowns caused significant improvements to air quality, others found a correlation between Covid-19 hotspots and areas with high levels of pollution concentrations.

Given the higher uncertainty of the situation new and existing trends are being tested to improve the air quality in densely populated cities. Such trends include:

Vertical forests
Architects and engineers came up with the idea of planting trees in skyscrapers by calling them vertical forests or living towers. Some examples of such building projects can be found in Milan, Nanjing, Cancun, Cairo, Utrecht, Singapore, Kuala Lumpur, and Cebu.

Sponge cities
The main feature of a sponge city structure is to capture rainwater and to redistribute more slowly in cities that a prone to sudden floods because of storms or hurricanes. The buildings use natural materials that absorb water that is stored in wells and can be reused again.
Sponge cities were first implemented in China for more than 20 years ago.
Sponge cities have been launched in 20 locations in China, including the city of Wuhan.
The same model can be applied in other countries prone to flooding such as the US, India, Thailand, Indonesia, Bangladesh, Myanmar, etc.

15 or 20-minute Cities
The 15 or 20-minute city or neighborhood is a solution closely related to the post-COVID-19 local/economic recovery. When lockdowns were in place, people in some countries could get out for grocery shopping or essential activities only for a limited time. Hence the idea of 15-20 minute neighborhoods. People will be able to find everything they need in their local area by walking, biking, or public transport. The City of Melbourne incorporated the concept into their city planning.

Such models are usually approached by local authorities or big enterprises, but there is a lot to do also as an individual. The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) suggests five different ways to make cities more sustainable. The list includes simple actions such as urban agriculture, healthy diets, waste reduction, etc.

In the meantime, the pandemic has accelerated digital trends and innovation in making people’s lives easier while shop, work, study, get entertained, or get healthcare consulting without needing to leave the home. This is the moment to give a chance to any idea that can help the most of urban transition towards sustainability.
hence if you have an idea or a project that could make healthier cities and contribute to the Sustainable Development Goals, you have two weeks to join the 2020 Citizen Entrepreneurship Competition. Meanwhile, you can take free online training on social and sustainable entrepreneurship and create networks with a lot of aspiring entrepreneurs from all over the world.

 

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241 Comments

  1. What does a sustainable city include?
    Key features of a sustainable city

    Public transport is safe and reliable. Walking and cycling is safe. Areas of open space are safe, accessible and enjoyable. Wherever possible, renewable resources are used instead of non-renewable resources.
    Why are sustainable cities important?
    Cities have responsibility for a remarkable amount of policy making that affects sustainability. The sustainable city, according to Cohen, facilitates economic production and consumption processes while reducing our impact on the natural world. Energy is central to sustainability.

    Major Features of Sustainable Community Development
    Ecological Protection1.Density & Urban Design2.Urban Infill3.Village Centres4.Local Economy5.Sustainable Transport6.Affordable Housing7.Livable Community8.Sewage & Stormwater9.. Water10.. Energy11.. The 3 ‘R’s12

  2. Advantages of Technology in Manufacturing (Latest Trends and Current Scenario)

    The evolution of Manufacturing Industry and Processes could be traced along the same lines as that of IT Industry. One of the basic and common factors in the evolution cycle of these industries is the reducing Human Interface.
    From manual manufacturing processes of yesterday, the industry today has made a shift towards and has started witnessing the benefits of Digital Manufacturing. Digital Manufacturing, as the name suggests, simulates all the processes of manufacturing on the computers to define the most efficient processes for the companies. The entire manufacturing process right from Assembly lines, human ergonomic simulation, Robotic Simulation, plant layout, etc. could be defined, developed, implemented and monitored virtually in the 3D environment.

    This results in enabling companies to achieve utmost production efficiency, in reduced time and costs thereby facilitating early entry to the market.
    Right from the Classic Example of Toyota, the early adopters of this imminent technological trend, to our very own indigenous MNC TATA Motors who are as well not very far behind, all the automotive companies in the world are now digitally simulating their plant layouts and production processes in their efforts to attain production excellence.

    Digital Manufacturing Solutions and technologies through their offerings like “Design for Manufacturing” and “Design for Servicing” help the companies configure the optimum work flows during the plant layout stage which enables the companies in enhancing the productivity and overall output of the company. Digital manufacturing solutions could be used to design and plan the green plant (right from scratch – new plant) or brown plant (to bring out necessary planning and layout changes in the existing plant). Either ways it configures optimum and customized workflows for the companies which would help them generate highest possible level of production output thereby enhancing the production capacity of the plant.

    Issues concerning to constraints in manufacturing or feasibility of manufacturing, popularly referred to as “manufacturability concerns” or “ergonomic constraints” are very difficult and highly expensive to rectify once the plant, work flows and processes are established. A prior validation would help companies identify such concerns at the earlier stage of planning and would hence save the time and cost of rectification. Because digital manufacturing solutions create and present the plant planning in the virtual 3D environment, it becomes easy for the companies to validate and evaluate their designs to identify such concerns before hand and address them at the planning stage. Apart from virtual validation of plant and processes, these technologies also help the companies to plan and allocate their resources and also make optimum use of their available plant space. The human ergonomic simulation helps companies to identify the ways and means of carrying out a task manually which would cause minimum possible physical stress to the people working on shop floor. This reduces chances of accidents and occupational hazards. It thus helps Companies to build plants that are more efficient yet secured, safe, and worker friendly.

    The more than ever competent companies of today believe in taking calculated risks. To sustain and move ahead of the competition, the companies today are committed to implementing management principles such as 6 sigma, kaizen etc.
    The digital manufacturing processes could prove to be a boon for the companies who are committed to implementing Six Sigma. It would in-turn help the companies in bringing about product and process quality enhancement and control, which would identify defects, reduce errors etc. to attain utmost production accuracy. Hence the benefits of such solutions are not just limited to the Shop floor but could also be extended to attaining the higher management goals.

    Thanks to such technologies, the companies today can try out many “what if” scenarios at minimum costs to validate their processes and arrive at the most optimum solutions. They can try all the options through simulation and finally incorporate those suitable changes in the actual practice which would best benefit them. Companies stand to largely gain from the benefits of virtual validation and simulation of Plants and Processes, concurrent Engineering and Customized approach to arrive at the right approach for achieving higher efficiencies.

  3. Anonymous

    16.09.2020 · Reply

    Green urbanism: 10 benefits you should know
    Increase in greenhouse gas emissions, pollution, heat waves, stress… Confronted with this grim picture, it is becoming essential to adopt sustainable urban planning (aka green cities) to improve the health and wellbeing of all significantly. But, in real terms, what would the benefits be? Here are 10 you should learn by heart!

    Good to know

    By 2050, it is estimated that 70% of the world population will live in urban environments.
    To meet this planetary challenge, cities must now be urbanized from the perspective of sustainable development. Urbanism must be 100% green!

    1. Reduction of stress

    Noise, traffic, over-crowded public transport… Every day, people who live in cities are confronted with stressful situations. To return to peace and quiet, green city planning reconsiders roadways in cities and villages and alternative means of transport – bikes, scooters and electric cars — as they all contribute to a better quality of life!
    2. Reduction in pollution

    It is a fact that our planet is suffocating and that pollution trapped in cities causes asthma, chronic coughs and even cancers. Trees can retain up to 5.4 metric tons of CO2 and 20kg of dust a year, so public authorities can no longer turn a blind eye to the need to add plants to their urban landscapes.
    3. Education in biodiversity

    By introducing vegetated spaces to encourage biodiversity, green urbanism is a teaching tool. Insect hotels and other refuges build awareness in residents of all ages about the interactions between plants and animals and the importance of preserving the environment.
    4. Increase in real estate values

    Buyers are increasingly interested in homes close to gardens and parks. As a result their prices escalate! According to Unep, a green space under 100 meters from a home can boost its value by € 10,000.
    Residences with good energy performances also boost prices.
    5. Better rainwater management

    Mains drainage has a low absorption capacity, and another adverse factor is the massive amounts of concrete covering the ground which prevents rain water from soaking in. Upstream run-off weakens the ground and pollutes rainwater which becomes charged with waste as it flows, requiring heavier treatments downstream. Green city planning using plants manages this water more effectively with a host of other benefits!
    6. Extra user-friendliness

    The creation of accessible and adapted green spaces has a positive effect on local life as residents use them to stroll, meet, chat and make friends. Sustainable urban planning plays a fundamental role in forging true communities in a world full of “loners”!

    How to use landscape design to create user-friendly parks?
    7. Better health

    In addition to its positive action on air pollution, green urbanism also improves physical health (by the installation of sports grounds), mental health (by the relaxing properties of plants) and social health (by the creation of spaces designed to promote human contact). Find out what the French city of Lyon did to mix health and green spaces!
    8. Development of locally produced food

    It is difficult to promote short circuit logistics if no kitchen gardens exist close to home! Sustainable urban planning can combine the benefits of green spaces with those of “useful” gardens. In every big city, like in Detroit (USA), collective kitchen gardens are being created at the foot of buildings and even on roofs and frontages. In this way residents benefit from seasonal vegetables plus all the other advantages contact with plants bring.
    9. Helping with social integration

    Sustainable urban planning can also create jobs and social links by including dedicated green spaces in local development schemes. These community green spaces make it possible for socially unstable people to renew contact with society through a shared, valorizing and remunerative activity.
    10. To cool cities

    Heat waves are increasingly frequent, especially in cities where buildings block air flows. By alternative energy systems and the development of green spaces, sustainable urban planning brings a range of effective solutions to “heat pockets.”

    Discover 4 TEDx conferences on developing sustainable urban planning

    A true evolution, even a revolution, green city planning promises a better future for all. Aware of the environmental challenges, 60% of the French population want public authorities to make new green spaces their top priority (1)! A likely boost for the transition towards greener cities.

  4. Anonymous

    16.09.2020 · Reply

    The 13 top advantages of innovation management software

    Innovation management software is a relatively recent development made possible by technologies such as cloud computing and social sharing platforms. In this article, you can read about the benefits of innovation software and how it can assist your company in developing and implementing innovations.
    1. Creating an innovation culture

    Companies with a strong hierarchy often prevent employees from exchanging ideas or questioning the status quo. Innovation management software removes this barrier and creates a culture of innovation in which ideas are welcomed and appreciated. With the appropriate software, every employee can become an innovator and contribute good ideas. Besides, the tool can help in the evaluation and processing of trends as well as directly in innovation projects.
    2. Involvement without time and place restrictions

    The markets are becoming increasingly global. Innovation management software offers people from all over the world a central place to participate in the submission and evaluation process of ideas and trends at any time and place as well as to work together on innovation projects.

    Companies can collaborate with both internal employees and external experts.
    An online idea competition that goes on for several weeks allows the company to reach a much larger audience than, for example, within a workshop. Participants can engage online and develop new ideas step by step.
    Location- and time-independence offers companies the opportunity to approach a variety of experts and resources to drive innovation. Also, suppliers, partners, customers, experts, etc. can submit their ideas.

    Innovation management software, therefore, helps to recruit talent and resources from around the world, create a central source of ideas and trends, and drive the innovation process within the organization.
    3. Increase employee engagement

    Dedicated employees have a significant impact on business development and customer satisfaction. By inviting employees to become part of a company’s innovation initiatives, they feel more valued and connected to the company’s success. As a result, overall job satisfaction increases, and a collaborative environment is established.

    The possibility of simply logging in to a central platform and quickly submitting an idea increases employee engagement. Idea competitions and the gamification of innovations are additional incentives for participation. For example, employees receive points for submitting, evaluating, and commenting ideas, or for implementing innovation projects and working in search fields. Depending on the number of points, the employee then receives a status that can be associated with certain privileges.
    5. Increase employee engagement

    In some workshops or meetings, there are often participants who do not want to be a part of an active discussion. Introverted people often stay back in group situations and are afraid to contribute their ideas. In an online process, social pressure and the barrier to participation are usually lower as there is space and much time to get involved. This might lead to unusual situations when, for example, an assistant questions expert’s opinion or creative ideas come from employees who are not “responsible” for them.
    6. Transparency against resistance

    The entire innovation process can be documented via an innovation management platform and can be viewed by everyone at any time. Transparent discussions and feedback for all participants are essential to overcome the innovation resistance. What some see as an excellent opportunity for some change may be perceived as a “threat” by others. Open innovation management systems help fight resistance and tensions from the beginning, and they also work very efficiently and constructively online.

    • Anonymous

      16.09.2020 · Reply

      7. Optimization of the innovation process

      With automated innovation software features, organizations can streamline a variety of processes – from evaluating and sorting submissions to tracking project progress and efficiently implementing innovation projects across a defined workflow. For example, automated idea management tools provide a quick and easy way to sort large amounts of information. Those tools prevent valuable ideas from going lost. Other softwares, on the other hand, manage the prioritization of ideas and develop them further according to the schedule.
      8. Avoid errors in selection processes

      A particular advantage of the computer-assisted innovation process is the avoidance of double developments and the resulting expensive repetition of selection processes. The rationalization of the innovation process prevents duplication and paves the way for the realization of the best ideas.
      9. Better decision-making through transparency

      The transparency provided by innovation software enables moderators to make clear decisions and makes the decision-making process much easier and also more traceable. This saves time and money.
      10. Analysis of the degree of innovation

      In an IT-supported innovation process, you can measure the degree of innovation of your company very well. The indicators, such as the intensity of participation and the diversity of different perspectives, show how comprehensive innovation might be. With the help of various tools, you can see whether employees of your company prefer working in very networked groups or only in their teams. However, the analysis of network structures not only promotes the development of innovations, but it also provides information on which conditions promote innovation processes.
      11. Improving the customer experience

      By focusing on sales growth and competitiveness, companies often lose track of the customer experience. This can be a severe mistake in times of increasing demands on user experience and individualization. Innovation management software can prevent this by making the online platform accessible to customers.

      Users can provide valuable feedback and suggest solutions based on user experience that can easily be overlooked by internal departments. Innovations that enhance customer experience can create loyal customers who act as brand ambassadors and help build a positive brand image and reputation. A better understanding of the customer and the ability to respond to customer needs creates a competitive advantage.
      12. Acceleration of the innovation time

      By improving communication, collaboration, and streamlining project management along the development pipeline, the innovation software significantly shortens development time and brings more innovative products and services to the market faster than before. Innovation management software is, therefore, the ideal way to build internal and external networks for collaboration, efficiently implement innovation projects, and increase innovation output.
      13. Identification of new markets and business models

      Innovation software is more than just generating new ideas; it can be used to identify new markets and develop disruptive business models that have not yet been considered. In this way, innovation software becomes an invaluable tool for completely reinventing existing markets.
      Conclusion: Advantages of innovation management software

      Automated tools enable organizations to leverage multiple resources to drive innovation. Internal and external ideas can be reliably captured, prioritized, and developed by using structured processes. The software keeps trends up to date and allows a regular check. Companies can collaborate with both internal employees and external experts. In increasingly global markets, innovation management software offers companies the advantage of bringing products to market faster and thus securing a competitive advantage.

  5. 7. Optimization of the innovation process

    With automated innovation software features, organizations can streamline a variety of processes – from evaluating and sorting submissions to tracking project progress and efficiently implementing innovation projects across a defined workflow. For example, automated idea management tools provide a quick and easy way to sort large amounts of information. Those tools prevent valuable ideas from going lost. Other softwares, on the other hand, manage the prioritization of ideas and develop them further according to the schedule.
    8. Avoid errors in selection processes

    A particular advantage of the computer-assisted innovation process is the avoidance of double developments and the resulting expensive repetition of selection processes. The rationalization of the innovation process prevents duplication and paves the way for the realization of the best ideas.
    9. Better decision-making through transparency

    The transparency provided by innovation software enables moderators to make clear decisions and makes the decision-making process much easier and also more traceable. This saves time and money.
    10. Analysis of the degree of innovation

    In an IT-supported innovation process, you can measure the degree of innovation of your company very well. The indicators, such as the intensity of participation and the diversity of different perspectives, show how comprehensive innovation might be. With the help of various tools, you can see whether employees of your company prefer working in very networked groups or only in their teams. However, the analysis of network structures not only promotes the development of innovations, but it also provides information on which conditions promote innovation processes.
    11. Improving the customer experience

    By focusing on sales growth and competitiveness, companies often lose track of the customer experience. This can be a severe mistake in times of increasing demands on user experience and individualization. Innovation management software can prevent this by making the online platform accessible to customers.

    Users can provide valuable feedback and suggest solutions based on user experience that can easily be overlooked by internal departments. Innovations that enhance customer experience can create loyal customers who act as brand ambassadors and help build a positive brand image and reputation. A better understanding of the customer and the ability to respond to customer needs creates a competitive advantage.
    12. Acceleration of the innovation time

    By improving communication, collaboration, and streamlining project management along the development pipeline, the innovation software significantly shortens development time and brings more innovative products and services to the market faster than before. Innovation management software is, therefore, the ideal way to build internal and external networks for collaboration, efficiently implement innovation projects, and increase innovation output.
    13. Identification of new markets and business models

    Innovation software is more than just generating new ideas; it can be used to identify new markets and develop disruptive business models that have not yet been considered. In this way, innovation software becomes an invaluable tool for completely reinventing existing markets.
    Conclusion: Advantages of innovation management software

    Automated tools enable organizations to leverage multiple resources to drive innovation. Internal and external ideas can be reliably captured, prioritized, and developed by using structured processes. The software keeps trends up to date and allows a regular check. Companies can collaborate with both internal employees and external experts. In increasingly global markets, innovation management software offers companies the advantage of bringing products to market faster and thus securing a competitive advantage.

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    i strongly agree with this

  6. I agree with this above

  7. THE BELOW COMMENT IS RIGHT

    The 13 top advantages of innovation management software

    Innovation management software is a relatively recent development made possible by technologies such as cloud computing and social sharing platforms. In this article, you can read about the benefits of innovation software and how it can assist your company in developing and implementing innovations.
    1. Creating an innovation culture

    Companies with a strong hierarchy often prevent employees from exchanging ideas or questioning the status quo. Innovation management software removes this barrier and creates a culture of innovation in which ideas are welcomed and appreciated. With the appropriate software, every employee can become an innovator and contribute good ideas. Besides, the tool can help in the evaluation and processing of trends as well as directly in innovation projects.
    2. Involvement without time and place restrictions

    The markets are becoming increasingly global. Innovation management software offers people from all over the world a central place to participate in the submission and evaluation process of ideas and trends at any time and place as well as to work together on innovation projects.

    Companies can collaborate with both internal employees and external experts.
    An online idea competition that goes on for several weeks allows the company to reach a much larger audience than, for example, within a workshop. Participants can engage online and develop new ideas step by step.
    Location- and time-independence offers companies the opportunity to approach a variety of experts and resources to drive innovation. Also, suppliers, partners, customers, experts, etc. can submit their ideas.

    Innovation management software, therefore, helps to recruit talent and resources from around the world, create a central source of ideas and trends, and drive the innovation process within the organization.
    3. Increase employee engagement

    Dedicated employees have a significant impact on business development and customer satisfaction. By inviting employees to become part of a company’s innovation initiatives, they feel more valued and connected to the company’s success. As a result, overall job satisfaction increases, and a collaborative environment is established.

    The possibility of simply logging in to a central platform and quickly submitting an idea increases employee engagement. Idea competitions and the gamification of innovations are additional incentives for participation. For example, employees receive points for submitting, evaluating, and commenting ideas, or for implementing innovation projects and working in search fields. Depending on the number of points, the employee then receives a status that can be associated with certain privileges.
    5. Increase employee engagement

    In some workshops or meetings, there are often participants who do not want to be a part of an active discussion. Introverted people often stay back in group situations and are afraid to contribute their ideas. In an online process, social pressure and the barrier to participation are usually lower as there is space and much time to get involved. This might lead to unusual situations when, for example, an assistant questions expert’s opinion or creative ideas come from employees who are not “responsible” for them.
    6. Transparency against resistance

    The entire innovation process can be documented via an innovation management platform and can be viewed by everyone at any time. Transparent discussions and feedback for all participants are essential to overcome the innovation resistance. What some see as an excellent opportunity for some change may be perceived as a “threat” by others. Open innovation management systems help fight resistance and tensions from the beginning, and they also work very efficiently and constructively online.

  8. We need to reflect on this

    Advantages of Technology in Manufacturing (Latest Trends and Current Scenario)

    The evolution of Manufacturing Industry and Processes could be traced along the same lines as that of IT Industry. One of the basic and common factors in the evolution cycle of these industries is the reducing Human Interface.
    From manual manufacturing processes of yesterday, the industry today has made a shift towards and has started witnessing the benefits of Digital Manufacturing. Digital Manufacturing, as the name suggests, simulates all the processes of manufacturing on the computers to define the most efficient processes for the companies. The entire manufacturing process right from Assembly lines, human ergonomic simulation, Robotic Simulation, plant layout, etc. could be defined, developed, implemented and monitored virtually in the 3D environment.

    This results in enabling companies to achieve utmost production efficiency, in reduced time and costs thereby facilitating early entry to the market.
    Right from the Classic Example of Toyota, the early adopters of this imminent technological trend, to our very own indigenous MNC TATA Motors who are as well not very far behind, all the automotive companies in the world are now digitally simulating their plant layouts and production processes in their efforts to attain production excellence.

    Digital Manufacturing Solutions and technologies through their offerings like “Design for Manufacturing” and “Design for Servicing” help the companies configure the optimum work flows during the plant layout stage which enables the companies in enhancing the productivity and overall output of the company. Digital manufacturing solutions could be used to design and plan the green plant (right from scratch – new plant) or brown plant (to bring out necessary planning and layout changes in the existing plant). Either ways it configures optimum and customized workflows for the companies which would help them generate highest possible level of production output thereby enhancing the production capacity of the plant.

  9. Innovative Trends to Make Cities more Sustainable

    Published on: 16.09.2020

    Campus members and co contestants 2020 did you know that the above headline of todays blog align goal 11?

    Go to you About the Competition and read the 17 SDGs

    Guten Abend

  10. I strongly supported what Gregory and Ephraim commented above

  11. Today blog align goal 11

    let us reflect on it

  12. The world’s population is constantly increasing.
    To accommodate everyone, we need to build modern, sustainable cities. For all of us to survive and prosper, we need new, intelligent urban planning that creates safe, affordable and resilient cities with green and culturally inspiring living conditions.
    To make cities and communities sustainable, we all have to take action. Get inspired here: Did you know that the Entrepreneurship Online Training offered by the Entrepreneurship Campus is one of the key components of this platform? The lessons empower people of every age and all over the world to change the way they think and to create a mindset that paves the way towards a sustainable future. By learning new skills and how to develop knowledge, online training helps the members of the Entrepreneurship Campus to create and share values and behaviours, and to find innovative solutions that contribute to a sustainable world.
    What are you waiting for?
    Take the free online training today, on social and sustainable entrepreneurship.

    Thank you!

  13. Everyone can help to make sure that we meet the Global Goals. Use these ten targets to create action to make cities and communities sustainable.

    • Hi!
      We as idea/project;
      mobile/portable tap bartending cart,framed in a practical point of view,it is made and decorated from recycled materials allowing our esteemed visitor to think about the relationship btwn humans and nature the evolution of food from fields to tables and the environment impact of avoiding wasting raw materials and corporate society in a sustainable responsible consumption with innovation of customers choice and preference of a self-serve draft tapping system.
      From this initiative and strive h-e-l-p change the world sustainably wishes to engaging you to reasonate with us,a call to action!kindly visit my page @www.entrepreneurship-campus.org/ideas/26/18538
      Your vote,Feedback’s counts,until then,remember that our only limits are those posed by our skills set and imagination! assuredly that already our steps here at campus has sparkled the world sustainably!!
      Thank you in advance!

  14. SAFE AND AFFORDABLE
    HOUSING:
    By 2030, ensure access for all to adequate, safe and
    affordable housing and basic services and upgrade slums.

  15. AFFORDABLE AND SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT SYSTEMS:
    By 2030, provide access to safe, affordable, accessible and sustainable transport systems for all, improving road safety, notably by expanding public transport, with special attention to the needs of those in vulnerable situations, women, children, persons with disabilities and older persons.

  16. INCLUSIVE AND SUSTAINABLE URBANIZATION:
    By 2030, enhance inclusive and sustainable urbanisation and capacity for participatory, integrated and sustainable human settlement planning and management in all countries.

  17. PROTECT THE WORLD’S CULTURAL AND NATURAL
    HERITAGE:
    Strengthen efforts to protect and safeguard the world’s
    cultural and natural heritage.

  18. REDUCE THE ADVERSE EFFECTS OF NATURAL DISASTERS:
    By 2030, significantly reduce the number of deaths and the number of people affected and substantially decrease the direct economic losses relative to global gross domestic product caused by disasters,including water-related disasters, with a focus on protecting the poor and people in vulnerable situations.

  19. REDUCE THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF CITIES:
    By 2030, reduce the adverse per capita environmental
    impact of cities, including by paying special attention to air quality and municipal and other waste management.

  20. PROVIDE ACCESS TO SAFE AND INCLUSIVE GREEN AND PUBLIC SPACES:
    By 2030, provide universal access to safe, inclusive and accessible, green and public spaces, in particular for women and children, older persons and persons with disabilities.

  21. STRONG NATIONAL AND REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLANNING:
    Support positive economic, social and environmental links between urban, peri-urban and rural areas by strengthening national and regional development planning.

  22. IMPLEMENT POLICIES FOR INCLUSION, RESOURCE
    EFFICIENCY AND DISASTER RISK REDUCTION:
    By 2020, substantially increase the number of cities and human settlements adopting and implementing integrated policies and plans towards inclusion, resource efficiency, mitigation and adaptation to climate change, resilience to disasters, and develop and implement, in line with the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030, holistic disaster risk management at all levels.

  23. SUPPORT LEAST DEVELOPED COUNTRIES IN SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT BUILDING:
    Support least developed countries, including through
    financial and technical assistance, in building sustainable and resilient buildings utilizing local materials.

  24. What are you waiting for? GET INVOLVED!
    We can make cities and communities sustainable together.

    Thanks to the Organizers of this Campus for giving us this great platform where we interact and learn from each other.
    The YCEC is One of its kind to come to exist in world.

  25. Anonymous

    16.09.2020 · Reply

    Over half of the world’s population now lives in cities. With that number expected to double by 2050, urbanisation is one of the world’s most transformative trends.

  26. Anonymous

    16.09.2020 · Reply

    Cities are already responsible for 70 percent of global CO2 emissions and consume two thirds of the world’s energy.

  27. Anonymous

    16.09.2020 · Reply

    Whilst this rapid urbanisation has been the catalyst for innovative solutions in many areas, including housing, transportation and infrastructure, one key factor is often overlooked: food security and nutrition.

  28. Anonymous

    16.09.2020 · Reply

    Unfortunately, city living often begets poor dietary choices. Urban areas are also a major source of food waste.

  29. Anonymous

    16.09.2020 · Reply

    Urban sprawl is also happening at the expense of natural resources and green spaces, increasing the vulnerability of urban communities to the effects of climate change.

  30. Anonymous

    16.09.2020 · Reply

    If we want to create healthy, sustainable cities for future generations, we must reevaluate the way our cities function. FAO’s Urban Food Agenda supports policy-makers globally to incorporate food systems into city planning.

    Here are five ways that we can make cities healthier and more sustainable

  31. Anonymous

    16.09.2020 · Reply

    1. Promoting urban agriculture
    When you think of agriculture, most people think of rural areas. But did you know that over 800 million people worldwide practice urban agriculture?

  32. Anonymous

    16.09.2020 · Reply

    By preserving agricultural land in urban areas, we can shorten supply chains and the amount of CO2 emitted when transporting food from rural to urban areas.

  33. Anonymous

    16.09.2020 · Reply

    Producing and selling more fresh food within the city itself can reduce the environmental impact of food distribution, increase opportunities for inclusive local supply chains and improve access to nutritious foods, for example through farmers’ markets.

  34. Anonymous

    16.09.2020 · Reply

    In Medellin, Colombia, FAO has been supporting the departments of Nariño, Antioquia and Boyacá to build community gardens.

  35. Anonymous

    16.09.2020 · Reply

    More than 7 500 families have benefitted from these gardens, allowing them to grow their own food with the possibility of selling the surplus.

  36. Anonymous

    16.09.2020 · Reply

    The project was so successful that Colombia is now developing a number of political, legislative and governmental initiatives to promote similar schemes country-wide

  37. Anonymous

    16.09.2020 · Reply

    2. Encouraging healthy diets
    Lifestyles and dietary patterns are strongly influenced by the types of food available and their affordability.

    • Hi!,
      To good health and well being! this initiative will encourage community to adopt healthy lifestyles and moderate drinking, strictly complying with food safety laws,strictly checking the quality and safety of mixology ingredients, providing corresponding health benefits.
      You can support @www.entrepreneurship-campus.org/ideas/26/18538
      Thank you in advance!

  38. Anonymous

    16.09.2020 · Reply

    In cities where there is a large choice of fast food and convenience options, available food is often energy-dense and highly processed.

  39. Anonymous

    16.09.2020 · Reply

    This is a growing trend. In lower middle-income countries, the consumption of processed food with little nutritional value increased by 5.45 percent annually between 1998 and 2012. National governments and city administrations in developing countries face the problem of having to deal with undernutrition, but also with the health effects of obesity which is increasing at an alarming rate.

  40. Anonymous

    16.09.2020 · Reply

    However, all cities can play a greater role in ensuring healthy diets. In 2014, Singapore took the opportunity to assess their food outlets and launch the Healthier Dining Programme.

  41. Anonymous

    16.09.2020 · Reply

    A subsidy scheme encouraged food operators to use healthier ingredients, such as oils with reduced saturated fat content, and to put lower calorie meals on menus. In just over a year, the number of healthier meal options had doubled.

  42. Reducing and managing food waste
    People in urban areas consume up to 70 percent of global food supply, but much of it is thrown away.

    • Hi,
      To zero hunger! ,I like the initiative that will conserve foods,beverages and ingredients. In our bartending operations we intend to reduce wastes and enhance the society awareness of food to table evolution, and increase conservation and environmental protection.
      You can support this @www.entrepreneurship-campus.org/ideas/26/18538
      Thank you in advance!

  43. It is projected that urban food waste at retail and consumer level will have increased by 35 percent between 2007 and 2025.

  44. Although the causes of food waste varies from one region in the world to another, generally poor food planning, inadequate packaging, improper storage and cultural practices are all contributing to the problem.

  45. In addition, food waste that is not recycled or re-used is filling up the landfills. There, it decomposes and generates methane, a greenhouse gas that is more harmful to the planet than CO2. This scenario is not just a waste of food but also a waste of energy, money and natural resources such as land and water that is used to produce and process the food.

  46. Citywide measures for recovering safe and nutritious food and redistributing it through charities and food banks, composting or utilizing discarded food to generate energy can make a huge impact in reducing food waste.

  47. In the municipality of Lima, Peru, FAO has helped to create a Food Liaison Advisory Group to tackle issues of food loss and waste. One of the group’s initiatives was a city food waste taskforce that has established a composting centre for managing biomass waste. As a result, the amount of organic waste disposed of in landfills and city drainage has been cut dramatically.

  48. Anonymous

    16.09.2020 · Reply

    Boosting green spaces for healthier environments and improved lifestyles

    As urban areas continue to expand, green spaces are disappearing. More than just for aesthetic appeal, trees and green areas are essential for improving air quality, mitigating urban temperatures, encouraging physical activity and improving overall health. Air pollution, rising local temperatures and sedentary lifestyles can increase the probability of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, obesity and fuel the spread of new pathogens.

    Food systems need to be planned and managed together with the green environment, in order to curb pollution, encourage healthy diets and physical activity. In Los Angeles, for instance, researchers have found that the more parks there are within 500 metres of a child’s home, the lower that child’s Body Mass Index (BMI) will be at age 18.

  49. Although cities and urban areas are on the frontline of the COVID-19 response and recovery, the social and economic impact of the pandemic goes far beyond their boundaries. On the other hand, inequalities between urban and rural areas and even within cities have already been a problem before the pandemic outbreak. The latter pointed out the necessity of tackling such gaps. Deep-rooted inequalities in urban safety, public services, and infrastructure were amplified by the pandemic and increased the financial burden especially for the most vulnerable people.

    Hence, there is a growing need for making cities and communities not only more sustainable and inclusive but also healthier.
    A report on COVID-19 and Cities issued by the United Nations in July confirmed that an estimated 90 percent of all cases were reported in urban areas. With almost half of the world’s population living in cities, it sounds logical, even though there is no evidence to suggest that density is related to higher virus transmission. Yet many other factors can be related.

    This article is sustainable, I urges all to read and reflect

  50. Citywide measures for recovering safe and nutritious food and redistributing it through charities and food banks, composting or utilizing discarded food to generate energy can make a huge impact in reducing food waste.

    I agree with this comment

  51. It is projected that urban food waste at retail and consumer level will have increased by 35 percent between 2007 and 2025.

    Lat us refine this in our diverse ideas and projects

  52. The inequalities between the urban and the rural areas indeed is envisage in all aspects of life. Even the COVID 19 is more destructive in cities than rural areas and cities are more plluted than towns, ironically, rural areas are more greenish than cities making cities to also be more vulnerable to clomates change challenges than rural areas. While I have seen a couple of ideas of campus members on sustainable cities, I think campus members can still refine ideas to address this very important challenge.

  53. On the major focus of the sustainable cities, sustainable transportation will reduce the reliance of a city by utilizing eco friendly urbanplanning, low environmental impact vehicles, and residential proximity which will create an urban center that has greater environmental responsibility.
    We can also reprogram Spaces in growing cities, as the need for sustainable infrastructure quickly outpaces our ability to build global cities,cities that will have a twitter of trees,an internet of pipes..etc
    You can support my idea project @www.entrepreneurship-campus.org/ideas/26/18538
    Regards,
    Karanja.

  54. The world is becoming increasingly urbanized. Since 2007, more than half the world’s population has been living in cities, and that share is projected to rise to 60 per cent by 2030

  55. I intuitively agree with this comment below

    On the major focus of the sustainable cities, sustainable transportation will reduce the reliance of a city by utilizing eco friendly urbanplanning, low environmental impact vehicles, and residential proximity which will create an urban center that has greater environmental responsibility.
    We can also reprogram Spaces in growing cities, as the need for sustainable infrastructure quickly outpaces our ability to build global cities,cities that will have a twitter of trees,an internet of pipes..etc
    You can support my idea https://www.entrepreneurship-campus.org/ideas/26/17721/
    Regards,
    Ephraim

  56. The inequalities between the urban and the rural areas indeed is envisage in all aspects of life. Even the COVID 19 is more destructive in cities than rural areas and cities are more plluted than towns, ironically, rural areas are more greenish than cities making cities to also be more vulnerable to clomates change challenges than rural areas. While I have seen a couple of ideas of campus members on sustainable cities, I think campus members can still refine ideas to address this very important challenge

    Togeda’s comment strickes, let’s reflect now and now

  57. Cities and metropolitan areas are powerhouses of economic growth—contributing about 60 per cent of global GDP. However, they also account for about 70 per cent of global carbon emissions and over 60 per cent of resource use.

    Rapid urbanization is resulting in a growing number of slum dwellers, inadequate and overburdened infrastructure and services (such as waste collection and water and sanitation systems, roads and transport), worsening air pollution and unplanned urban sprawl.

    The impact of COVID-19 will be most devastating in poor and densely populated urban areas, especially for the one billion people living in informal settlements and slums worldwide, where overcrowding also makes it difficult to follow recommended measures such as social distancing and self-isolation.

    The UN food agency, FAO, warned that hunger and fatalities could rise significantly in urban areas, without measures to ensure that poor and vulnerable residents have access to foo

  58. We need to know this fact now;

    Half of humanity – 3.5 billion people – lives in cities today and 5 billion people are projected to live in cities by 2030

  59. We need to know this fact now;

    95 per cent of urban expansion in the next decades will take place in developing world

  60. We need to know this fact now;

    95 per cent of urban expansion in the next decades will take place in developing world

    You can support my idea https://www.entrepreneurship-campus.org/ideas/26/17721/
    Regards,
    Ephraim

    Auf wiedersehen Tschuss (German)

  61. We need to know this fact now;

    828 million people live in slums today and most them are found in Eastern and South-Eastern Asia.

    You can support my idea https://www.entrepreneurship-campus.org/ideas/26/17721/
    Regards,
    Ephraim

    Auf wiedersehen Tschuss (German)

  62. We need to know this fact now;

    The world’s cities occupy just 3 per cent of the Earth’s land, but account for 60-80 per cent of energy consumption and 75 per cent of carbon emission.

    You can support my idea https://www.entrepreneurship-campus.org/ideas/26/17721/
    Regards,
    Ephraim

    Auf wiedersehen Tschuss (German)

  63. We need to know this fact now;

    Rapid urbanization is exerting pressure on fresh water supplies, sewage, the living environment, and public health..

    You can support my idea https://www.entrepreneurship-campus.org/ideas/26/17721/
    Regards,
    Ephraim

    Auf wiedersehen Tschuss (German)

  64. High-income countries

    AndorraFranceOmanAntigua and BarbudaFrench PolynesiaPalauArubaGermany PolandAustraliaGibraltarPortugalAustriaGreecePuerto RicoBahamasGreenlandQatarBahrainGuamRepublic of KoreaBarbadosHungarySaint Kitts and NevisBelgiumIcelandSan MarinoBermudaIrelandSaudi ArabiaBritish Virgin IslandsIsle of ManSeychellesBrunei DarussalamIsraelSingaporeCanadaItalySint Maarten (Dutch part)Cayman IslandsJapanSlovakiaChannel IslandsKuwaitSloveniaChileLatviaSpainChina, Hong Kong SARLiechtensteinSwedenChina, Macao SARLithuaniaSwitzerlandChina, Taiwan Province of ChinaLuxembourgTrinidad and TobagoCuraçaoMaltaTurks and Caicos IslandsCyprusMonacoUnited Arab EmiratesCzechiaNetherlandsUnited Kingdom of GreatDenmarkNew CaledoniaBritain and Northern IslandEstoniaNew ZealandUnited States of AmericaFaroe IslandsNorthern Mariana IslandsUnited States Virgin IslandsFinlandNorwayUruguay

  65. Upper-middle-income countries

    AlbaniaEquatorial GuineaPanamaAlgeriaFijiParaguayAmerican SamoaGabonPeruArgentinaGrenadaRomaniaAzerbaijanGuyanaRussian FederationBelarusIran (Islamic Republic of)Saint LuciaBelizeIraqSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesBosnia and HerzegovinaJamaicaSamoaBotswanaKazakhstanSerbiaBrazilLebanonSouth AfricaBulgariaLibyaSurinameChinaMalaysiaThe former YugoslavColombiaMaldivesRepublic of MacedoniaCosta RicaMarshall IslandsThailandCroatiaMauritiusTongaCubaMexicoTurkeyDominicaMontenegroTurkmenistanDominican RepublicNamibiaTuvaluEcuadorNauruVenezuela (Bolivarian Rep. of)Lower-middle-income countriesAngola IndiaRepublic of MoldovaArmeniaIndonesiaSao Tome and PrincipeBangladeshJordan Solomon IslandsBhutanKenyaSri LankaBolivia (Plurinational State of)KiribatiState of PalestineCabo VerdeKyrgyzstanSudanCambodia Lao People’s Democratic RepublicSyrian Arab RepublicCameroonLesothoTajikistanCongoMauritaniaTimor-LesteCôte d’IvoireMicronesia (Fed. States of)Tunisia DjiboutiMongoliaUkraineEgyptMoroccoUzbekistanEl SalvadorMyanmarVanuatuEswatiniNicaraguaViet NamGeorgiaNigeriaYemenGhanaPakistanZambiaGuatemalaPapua New GuineaHondurasPhilippines

  66. Innovative Trends to Make Cities more Sustainable

    9 Vertical Forests Around the World That Look like Jungles in the City
    Here are some of the most impressive vertical forests from around the world.
    With space ever at a premium in the world’s rapidly expanding cities, could the secret of adding green spaces be to build them vertically? That’s what the planners behind these concepts and existing vertical forests are banking on.

    But it is not just to make cities more bearable to look at. By adding vegetation to the building’s exterior, air quality in the city, and energy efficiency within the buildings can greatly benefit.
    1. Nanjing in China has some interesting vertical forests
    The city of Nanjing in China has been making a push to “greenify” some of its tower blocks. Called “Living Towers,” these multistorey buildings, once built, will be covered with thousands of living, breathing (well photosynthesizing) trees.
    Such initiatives might just be the future of many tall buildings around China and the world.

    2. This “Smart Forest City” concept for Cancun is awesome
    has an interesting vision for future development in Cancun, Mexico. Covering around 557 hectares, their concept for a “Smart Forest City” could house around 130,000 people.

    Almost everywhere conceivable within the development would have planted surfaces, including upwards on building facades and roofs. With so much vegetation, it would be difficult to remember that you are actually living in a city.
    3. Egypt may soon be home to Africa’s very first vertical forest
    vertical forests 5

    In collaboration with the Egyptian designer Shimaa Shalash and Italian landscape architect Laura Gatti, Stefano Boeri Architetti are also making plans for Egypt’s very own first-of-a-kind vertical forest.

    Designs for a trio of living buildings were released last year for Egypt’s planned New Administrative Capital just east of Cairo.

    “The buildings will have planted terraces containing 350 trees and 14,000 shrubs of more than 100 different species. One of the three buildings will be a hotel, while the other two will house apartment units.” – World Economic Forum.

    4. Milan, Italy has its own pair of vertical forests already
    vertical forests 6

    The city of Milan in Italy is yet another city that has been gifted with its own vertical forests. Called the “Bosco Verticale” (vertical forest in Italian), the twin living towers are home to over 20,000 plants and were completed in 2014.

    These plants not only produce oxygen and consume carbon dioxide, but they help to attenuate noise and act as passive temperature regulators for the building.
    5. Utrecht in the Netherlands is planning to build their own vertical forests as well
    vertical forests

    The city of Utrecht in the Netherlands is also planning to build their own vertical towers sometime in the future. Planners are keen to reinvigorate biodiversity in the local area by planting over 10,000 plants on a tower’s facade.
    6. This vertical forest in Milan, Spain is quite stunning
    vertical forests 2

    The exterior of the Caixa Forum Museum in Madrid is another amazing example of a verching for up to 4 stories high, this vertical green space consists of around 15,000 different plants from more than 250 species.

    It also looks pretty cool too.
    7. This vertical forest in Singapore is quite beautiful too
    vertical forests 3

    The outside of The Oasia Downtown Hotel is another amazing example of a vertical forest from around the world. Located in the heart of the city’s business district, this building really does stand out.

    8. These vertical forests in Kaula Lumpur City are also impressive
    vertical forests 4

    In the heart of Kuala Lumpur City in Malaysia, several amazing vertical forests can also be found. Designed by architect Jean Nouvel, these amazing buildings were built in 2016.

    Called “Le Nouvel Towers” these vertical towers certainly add some much-needed nature to the center of this modern city.

    9. The city of Cebu in the Philippines is hoping to get its own vertical forest too
    vertical forests cebu
    Source: vincentcallebautarchitectures/Instagram

    And finally, the Filipino city of Cebu is also set to get its very own vertical forest too. Much like other buildings on the list, the addition of vegetation to the building’s exterior will provide a great passive way to fight pollution and reduce heating and cooling costs throughout the year.

    Called “The Rainbow Tree,” this amazing vertical forest concept building has been designed to combine functionality and elegance using natural, simple, and traditional materials.

  67. Posted on July 28, 2020
    COVID-19: Cities in the frontline of response and recovery: calls for adequate investments at local level

    UN SG’s New Policy Brief, ‘COVID-19 in an Urban World’ launched

    Let us study this quote

  68. New York, July 28 – COVID-19 shutdown measures have had economic impacts far beyond city boundaries as urban economies account for 80 per cent of global GDP. The response should tackle the inequalities and long-term development deficits that have been exposed and made marginalized groups more vulnerable. National COVID-19 stimulus packages must boost the capacity of local actors – including the budgetary capacity of local governments to quickly respond to and recover from this crisis, according to the new UN Policy Brief released today.

    The UN SG’s Policy Brief on COVID-19 in an Urban World estimates that urban areas are at the epicenter of the pandemic, accounting for an estimated 90 per cent of cases. However, urban density does not correlate with higher virus transmission. Overcrowding and urban areas with poor infrastructure and housing or weak local governance does.

    “Now is the moment to adapt to the reality of this and future pandemics”, Secretary-General António Guterres said in his recorded message launching the new policy brief- COVID-19 in an Urban World.

    “And now is our chance to recover better, by building more resilient, inclusive and sustainable cities”, he added.

    UN-Habitat Executive Director Maimunah Mohd Sharif stated, “The Secretary-General’s Policy Brief is a powerful instrument to put us on the right path to deal with the crisis and also to seize the opportunity to do things differently in the recovery, so that we can create greener, healthier and more resilient cities. The transformative potential of urbanization towards achieving the Sustainable Development Goals cannot be lost. This moment cannot be missed.”

    The pandemic has exposed deep inequalities in how people live in cities, and how cities serve their residents. The Policy Brief prioritizes:

    Investing in disaggregated data to better understand inequalities;
    Guaranteeing safe shelter for everyone. Significant investments in affordable housing and slum upgrading can ensure everyone has access to shelter that facilitates physical and mental health;
    Ensuring uninterrupted access to essential public services for all;
    Guaranteeing equitable access to health supplies and resources and supporting the poor and other vulnerable groups with free or low-cost access to face masks, testing and treatment. Once available, it will be important to ensure equitable access to a COVID-19 vaccine;
    Engaging marginalized communities as partners in response efforts; and
    Embracing diversity and strengthening social cohesion.

    UNDP Administrator Achim Steiner stated, “Our programmes continue to address the complex root causes as well as the manifestations of development deficits that destabilize countries and cities. In alignment with the UN’s socioeconomic response framework, UNDP has quickly made available significant resources, technical as well as financial. We have repurposed some projects to support urgent needs where they are deployed and have just launched a $100 million financing support mechanism to build on progress from funds we made available to countries when the pandemic hit.”

    “We have been deepening our collaboration with UN-Habitat to enhance our support to cities to spur an inclusive and green recovery, and with associations of city and regional governments,” he further added.

    The Policy Brief recognizes that there is a need to build up the resilience of cities to better cope with future shocks. This can be done by investing in sectors with potential for high ecological and digital transformation and job creation, and investing significantly in the informal economy— the backbone of economic growth in developing countries. COVID-19 is an opportunity to rethink urban living to address the climate crisis and adapt to the reality of this and future pandemics.

    Let ALL reflect on this article, as I earlier said

  69. Anonymous

    17.09.2020 · Reply

    Innovative trends indeed sustains the world. Do you agree with me members?

  70. In light of the existing preliminary evidence of a link between Covid-19 and poor air quality, which is largely based upon correlations, we estimate the relationship between long term air pollution exposure and Covid-19 in 355 municipalities. Using detailed secondary and administrative data we find compelling evidence of a positive relationship between air pollution, and particularly PM 2.5 concentrations, and Covid-19 cases, hospital admissions and deaths. This relationship persists after controlling for a wide range of explanatory variables. Results indicate that a 1 μ/m3 increase in PM2.5 concentrations is associated with 9.4 more Covid-19 cases, 3.0 more hospital admissions, and 2.3 more deaths. The relationship between Covid-19 and air pollution withstands a number of sensitivity and robustness exercises including instrumenting pollution to mitigate potential endogeneity and modelling spatial spillovers using spatial econometric techniques

  71. In the meantime, the pandemic has accelerated digital trends and innovation in making people’s lives easier while shop, work, study, get entertained, or get healthcare consulting without needing to leave the home. This is the moment to give a chance to any idea that can help the most of urban transition towards sustainability.

  72. Finally, technology can play an important part in building a better world. E-forums for instance can offer a safe and intermediary place for people to meet and discuss issues. There are many divisions between people around the world, Catholics and Protestants, Black and White, and East and West. Thus, moderated e-forums can specify topics to discuss. People can post their thoughts and engage in discussions even if they would not say hello to each other on the street

  73. Blogs can be used to encourage a deeper understanding of diverse people. Writing a blog or reading someone else’s blog gives an insight into what it is to be that person. Blogs should be encouraged as a way of cultivating intercultural exchange. A couple of words about your daily life can be therapeutic in dealing with unresolved issues. Many conflicts happen because of fear or a lack of knowledge of the unknown; blogs allow an access point to get to know people who we would call strangers today but perhaps friends tomorrow

  74. Anonymous

    17.09.2020 · Reply

    Reconnecting cities with surrounding rural areas

    Cities and urban areas do not function in isolation from rural areas.

  75. Anonymous

    17.09.2020 · Reply

    In fact, they are highly dependent on the rural regions surrounding them. Cities rely heavily on the neighboring rural areas for food, labour force, water supply and food waste disposal.

  76. Anonymous

    17.09.2020 · Reply

    In Kisumu City, Kenya, the Food Liaison Advisory Group, a stakeholder platform comprising urban-rural actors, is taking a wider approach and reconnecting the city with the larger region in planning its food system.

  77. Anonymous

    17.09.2020 · Reply

    This helps ensure a supply of healthy, safe and nutritious food, while also promoting market access for rural farmers and creating jobs within the food system.

  78. Anonymous

    17.09.2020 · Reply

    It is often said that the battle for achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) will be won or lost in cities, which is why SDG 11 – making cities inclusive, safe and sustainable – is so important.
    .

  79. Anonymous

    17.09.2020 · Reply

    FAO’s Urban Food Agenda helps governments and institutions to break down the rural-urban divide and promote sustainable food-system thinking.

  80. Anonymous

    17.09.2020 · Reply

    On this topic, FAO is holding a training event at the 10th session of the World Urban Forum in Abu Dhabi on the 12 February to emphasise the importance of introducing food system planning in urban and city region contexts. If we can do this and continue to drive urban innovation in thoughtful, ground-breaking ways, we can ensure that “no one and no place” is left behind

  81. Anonymous

    17.09.2020 · Reply

    Sustainable City Trends (& Top 10 Eco-friendly Destinations In 2019)
    The human race is on the rise let it be education, technology, science, medical advancements, and whatnot. If there is anything that is on the receiving end of the impact of all this progressive human population than it’s our poor planet Earth.

  82. Anonymous

    17.09.2020 · Reply

    People living in this world have pushed this planet towards the verge of an alarming situation where its climate, eco-system, and environment is at risk of losing all the positivity it had some 20 or 30 years back.

  83. Anonymous

    17.09.2020 · Reply

    We have been witnessing some high risk climate and environmental incidents where we observed oceans that were flooded with plastic wastage, cities that were infected with diseases due to increase of garbage and daily wastage and a recent event of Amazon Fire that is still ongoing and Government of Brazil is doing everything they can to overcome this colossal damage.

  84. Anonymous

    17.09.2020 · Reply

    The impact of all such incidents creates a fragile environment and concerns for our generations to come as we experience the extinction of plants, trees, animals and natural resources.

  85. Anonymous

    17.09.2020 · Reply

    To overcome this critical situation many countries have come forward to join hands for a mutual venture where they thrive over eco-friendly and pollution-free environments.

  86. Anonymous

    17.09.2020 · Reply

    On larger prospects, major cities of the world were the initial target and therefore a sustainability movement was initiated back in 1994 which were named Aalborg Charter for sustainable cities and towns.

  87. Anonymous

    17.09.2020 · Reply

    After this movement, many cities have stepped up in taking the responsibility of creating a sustainable environment for humans and other species and took an innovative and integrated approach to make it better and better in the coming years.

  88. Anonymous

    17.09.2020 · Reply

    Thanks to the global awareness that was ran across all countries and nations via different organizations like IPPC, WMO, UNEP, GCF and many more that were sincere about climate and environmental challenges planet earth is facing, people get to understand the real impact of these issues. Fortunately, we have some success stories and examples that were set by some cities on this very planet that has overcome some of the major and basic issues and sustain their overall situation regressively. Creating footsteps for many other cities was to follow, below are some of the sustainable city trends that are making the rounds globally and applying such an approach can take your city to a clean, safe and healthy environment.

  89. Anonymous

    17.09.2020 · Reply

    Automobile Automation

    One of the increasing sustainable trends of the current time is the focus on automobile manufacturing and implying the automobile automation program that promotes fossil-fuel-free cars example of which is Tesla that is making cars and vehicles that can be run on electricity. The use of self-driven vehicles is also on the rise in different cities and following this automation trend will help to reshape the vehicle industry.

  90. Anonymous

    17.09.2020 · Reply

    Process of Farming- Sustainable Steps

    Production of food and agricultural goods is one area where we have observed a very less impact of technology-driven processes that can improve and innovate the whole system of farming and by applying which wastage of water and other natural resources can be controlled. In 2019, the agriculture sector will be in focus.

  91. Eco-system needs our attention

    We are living in the century that is witnessing the extinction of plants, trees, animals and species living under the sea. Use of plastic and increased population has caused bio-diversity to deplete over an increasing rate. Thanks to the globally recognized organizations that are spreading awareness amongst public to avert the attention towards this issue and we can hope that in coming years our eco-system would become a better place for all the species our Oceans have. Some recent activities were performed in various cities where group of NGOs planned activities to clean the beaches and spread educational programs on pollution and wastage that is causing trouble for the species living in our oceans.

  92. Idea of Recycling

    Cities like San Francisco has set an example for the world that the idea of recycling if implemented smartly can turn out to be effective in terms of saving cities from wastage and extra consumption. When you start recycling you are basically utilizing your wastage to be reused for several purposes rather than making it end in a garbage truck. There are many other cities that are working on recycling concept to improve their consumption of utilities and wastage control.

  93. Plastic Usage and its effects

    One of the major reasons that cause environmental issues is the increasing use of plastic in number of daily use commodities. Starting from a bottle of mineral water to shopping bags and what not, everything you see today is made out of plastic or some form of plastic that once used just does not dissolved and hence creates issues to our planet Earth. Our oceans are being filled with more plastic bags and bottles than fishes in it. One of the hot trends for a sustainable city is the ban on plastic usage.

  94. Anonymous

    17.09.2020 · Reply

    Public Spaces

    Apart from working on environmental challenges its equally important for city governance to focus on general public needs and provide a healthy and active city life to the public. Parks, cafes, transportation, district and municipality services all needs proper attention in a sustainable city.

  95. Anonymous

    17.09.2020 · Reply

    Control over CO2 emission

    For a sustainable city, it’s important to take control over Co2 emission within city and reduce the usage of machines, vehicles and industrial burners that are damaging the Ozone layer and challenging the global warming. Steps like vertical gardens, alternative energy options and transport options that does not require an engine to burn fuel like bicycles, Segway, or e-bikes can bring a positive impact in sustaining the city environment.

  96. Planting trees and flowers in the cities to me is a very valuable means of making cities more sustainable. I am urging campus members irrespective of our ideas and projects, taking little steps by planting a tree will go a long way to make cities more sustainable

  97. SLUM UPGRADING

    The word “slum” is often used to describe informal settlements within cities that have inadequate housing and squalid, miserable living conditions. They are often overcrowded, with many people crammed into very small living spaces.

    These settlements lack basic municipal services such as water, sanitation, waste collection, storm drainage, street lighting, paved sidewalks and roads for emergency access. Most also do not have easy access to schools, hospitals or public places for the community to gather. Many slums have been unserviced and unrecognized for long periods, over 20 years in some cities.

    Like all informal settlements, housing in slums is built on land that the occupant does not have a legal claim to and without any urban planning or adherence to zoning regulations. In addition, slums are often areas where many social indicators are on a downward slide; for example, crime and unemployment are on the rise.

    All slums are not the same, and some provide better living conditions than others. Likewise, slum dwellers are not a homogeneous population, but a diverse group of people with different interests, means and backgrounds.

    Slums are also a significant economic force. In many cities, as much as 60 percent of employment is in the informal sector of the urban population.

    Today, more than one billion people in the world live in slums. In the developing world, one out of every three people living in cities lives in a slum.

    UN-HABITAT defines a slum household as a group of individuals living under the same roof in an urban area who lack one or more of the following:

    Durable housing of a permanent nature that protects against extreme climate conditions.
    Sufficient living space, which means not more than three people sharing the same room.
    Easy access to safe water in sufficient amounts at an affordable price.
    Access to adequate sanitation in the form of a private or public toilet shared by a reasonable number of people.
    Security of tenure that prevents forced evictions.

    Why do slums develop?

    Slums are not a new phenomenon. They have been part of the history of most cities, particularly in the early years of urbanization and industrialization as populations boomed. Slums are generally the only type of settlement affordable and accessible to the poor in cities, where competition for land and profits is intense.

    There are two main reasons why slums develop: population growth and governance.

    Population growth

    Countries around the world are urbanizing rapidly as more people migrate from rural areas to the cities and natural population growth continues to occur. Today, more than half the world’s population resides in urban areas. More than 90 percent of this urban growth is taking place in the developing world.

    Urban migration happens for a number of reasons:

    The pushing and pulling forces of migration. Some people migrate because they are pushed out of their place of origin by factors such as natural disasters or sustained ecological changes. Others are pulled to a new destination by better job prospects, education, health facilities, or freedom from restrictive social or cultural realities.

    Low incomes from agriculture. Most people in rural areas work in the agricultural sector, which is highly dependent on weather. Also, rural land is limited, its fertility sometimes low or declining, land holdings are small, farm debts are high, and many households have become landless. As a result, overall rural incomes are low.

    Better job prospects. In comparison with rural areas, urban areas offer dramatically increased job opportunities. In addition, because urban cultures are often less constrained than those in villages, cities can also offer greater prospects of upward social mobility.

    People know what cities can offer them. Most migrants make a deliberate choice to stay or leave in rural areas. Improved transport, communications and links with earlier migrants have all made rural populations much more aware of the advantages and disadvantages of urban life, especially regarding job opportunities and housing.

    Urban migration is often a survival strategy for rural households. Sometimes, rural households split into several groups located in different places—rural areas, small towns, and big cities—in order to diversify their sources of income and be less vulnerable to economic downturns.

    Governance

    Another reason slums develop is bad governance. Governments often fail to recognize the rights of the urban poor and incorporate them into urban planning, thereby contributing to the growth of slums.

    In addition, many countries simply cannot respond to rapid urbanization quickly enough. People are coming to cities far faster than the planning process can incorporate them. Often, they find their own land and build a shack before the government has a chance to learn of their existence.

    The attitude of a government towards urbanization is also an important component. Some governments take a hostile approach to urbanization. They believe that if they provide urban services to the poor, it will attract urbanization and cause the slums to grow. The problem with this view is that very few people come to the city for water or services—they come looking for work.

    In other cases, governments take more of a passive approach to urbanization. They either do not have the planning tools to deal with the rapid urbanization that is happening, or the tools in place are not sufficiently responsive to the reality on the ground.

    What can be done to prevent the development of new slums?

    There are basic things a government can do to prevent new slums from developing. One is to recognize that urbanization is going to happen. Sometimes governments believe that adopting alternative policies, such as focusing on rural development, will stop urbanization. This approach is rarely effective.

    Once governments accept the reality of urban growth, the next step is to plan for it and determine where the new residents will live. Authorities should identify land and plan for its settlement even if money is not available for urban services. Once people settle on that land and feel that they have a right to live there, they will begin investing in it. Over time, the area will upgrade incrementally.

    What do we mean by land rights or secure tenure?

    Land tenure is the right of an individual or group to occupy or use a piece of land. It can be via ownership or lease.

    Land rights is about confidence in the future. People who are safe from eviction with a sense of long-term stability—whether they own the land or not—are much more likely to invest in their housing or community. Over time, these incremental improvements by residents can upgrade the entire community.

    There must also be a clear legal framework behind land rights. Often, slum dwellers face significant obstacles to owning or obtaining the rights to land. Land markets are frequently dysfunctional, and inappropriate standards or regulations make it nearly impossible for local authorities to find enough well-located, serviceable and affordable land for the residents of overcrowded slum settlements.

    In addition, control of land is often connected to political patronage and corruption, making it difficult to get clear information about land ownership, use and availability.

    What do we mean by citizenship rights?

    Slum dwellers are part of the urban populace, with the same democratic rights to environmental health and basic living conditions as all residents. These rights are often limited by a government’s ability to realize them.

    The process of realizing the rights of slum dwellers hinges on their capacity to engage actively with the government. It is a question of creating a space where slum dwellers and the government can engage in a dialogue about slums and upgrading their communities.

    Through dialogue, the parties can begin to lay out their rights and responsibilities and design programmes that communities are able to respond to. This is an important part of the process; if communities don’t understand their responsibilities or a slum upgrading programme is beyond the reach of the slum dwellers, the programme has a much lower chance of success.

  98. Anonymous

    18.09.2020 · Reply

    What makes a city resilient and sustainable?
    Making a city more resilient also requires building regulations and land use planning; training, education and public awareness; environmental protection and strengthening of the city’s ecosystem; effective preparedness, early warning and response; and recovery and rebuilding plans.
    Why do cities need to be sustainable?
    By getting urban development right, cities can create jobs and offer better livelihoods; increase economic growth; improve social inclusion; promote the decoupling of living standards and economic growth from environmental resource use; protect local and regional ecosystems; reduce both urban and rural poverty.

    How can we make cities more sustainable?
    8 ways to build more sustainable cities

    Reprogramming Space. In growing cities, the need for infrastructure can quickly outpace our ability to build it. …
    An Internet of Pipes. …
    Twitter for Trees. …
    Augmented Humans. …
    Co-heating, Co-cooling, CO2 Capture. …
    Sharing Spare Capacity. …
    Mobility on Demand. …
    Infrastructure for Social Integration.
    What are the examples of sustainable development?
    Examples of Sustainable Development

    Wind Energy.
    Solar Energy.
    Crop Rotation.
    Water efficient fixtures.
    Green Spaces.
    Which country is the most sustainable?
    Norway
    Norway has overtaken its neighbor Sweden to become the world’s most sustainable country, RobecoSAM’s latest Country Sustainability Ranking reveals.
    What is the most sustainable city in the world?
    London
    London beats competitors to be ranked as the most sustainable city in the world, according to research by leading global consultancy Arcadis. United Kingdom – London has been ranked as the most sustainable city in the world, putting it ahead of competitors including Stockholm, Frankfurt, Singapore, New York and Paris.
    Which country is the least sustainable?
    Map settings
    Country Recycling and composting Incineration with energy recovery
    Switzerland 51% 49%
    Sweden 50% 50%
    Netherlands 50% 48%
    Luxembourg 48% 35%
    Which is the cleanest and greenest country in the world?
    Finland
    According to the EPI index in year 2016 (Environmental Performance Index) prepared by Yale and Columbia Universities, Finland is the world’s cleanest and greenest country.
    Which country is the cleanest country in the world?
    Iceland
    Iceland is the cleanest country in the world. This may be hard to believe right now, what with the clouds of volcanic ash grounding flights across northern Europe, but according to researchers at Yale and Columbia universities, the Nordic island ranks first out of 163 countries on their Environmental Performance Index.
    Which country is dirtiest in the world?
    India
    List of most-polluted cities by particulate matter concentration
    Position Country PM2.5
    1 India 173
    2 India 172
    3 India 149
    4 India 146
    What country is the happiest country in the world?
    Finland
    Kopperoinen lives in Finland, which was named the happiest country in the world for the third year in a row on Friday according to the United Nations’ latest World Happiness Report. Finland is followed by Denmark, Switzerland, Iceland and Norway.
    Best Countries Overall Rank: 1

    Germany.
    Denmark.
    Japan.
    Australia.
    Sweden.
    Netherlands.
    Norway.
    Austria.
    Which countries are the greenest?
    Top Greenest Countries on Earth

    Denmark. Denmark is the topmost greenest country in the world, with an overall score of 82.50. …
    Luxembourg. …
    Switzerland. …
    United Kingdom. …
    France. …
    Austria. …
    Finland. …
    Sweden.
    Sweden
    1. Sweden. The least polluted country is Sweden with overall score of 2.8/10. The amount of carbon dioxide is 3.83 tonnes per capita per year, and the concentrations of PM2.
    Iceland
    Global Peace Index rankings (2008–2019)
    Country 2019 rank 2017 rank
    Iceland 1 1
    New Zealand 2 2
    Portugal 3 3
    Austria 4 4
    Which state is the happiest?
    Hawaii
    Overall Rank (1 = Happiest) State Total Score
    1 Hawaii 66.48
    2 Utah 65.93
    3 Minnesota 65.57
    4 California 64.11
    What country is the most free?
    2020 rankings

    In the 2020 index, New Zealand is ranked most free overall, while North Korea is last. Hong Kong was ranked most free in economic liberty, while Norway was ranked most free in the social liberty category.

  99. COVID-19 has disrupted all of our lives, not merely for a few months, but in a far more profound way. Nevertheless, the pandemic offers an opportunity to conceive of, and actively work towards, a better future for cities and their inhabitants.

  100. Over the last few months, all over the world, cities have devised innovative measures to implement lockdowns, promote social distancing and encourage increased hygiene measures.
    As parts of the world start to ease these measures, cities are once again leading the way, building on their proximity to the people, and devising creative solutions to craft “a new normal”. For cities that are currently facing the worst of the pandemic”, I believe that the experiences of these cities can provide useful guidance and help ease their burden during the challenging times.

  101. Let us consider this

    Rapid urbanization is exerting pressure on fresh water supplies, sewage, the living environment, and public health

  102. Let us consider this

    Cities account for between 60 and 80 per cent of energy consumption and generate as much as 70per cent of human-induced greenhouse gas emission

  103. Let us consider this

    90 per cent of urban growth is forecasted to happen in Asia and Africa in the next 30 years

  104. Let us consider this

    By 2050 70 per cent of the world population is predicted to live in urban settlements

  105. Promoting Sustainable Business

    22 Jan 2019

    As the World Economic Forum opens in Davos, Switzerland, United Nations Global Compact encourages economic leaders to integrate sustainable development in their business models.

  106. The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic has profoundly impacted cities around the world and raised fundamental questions about urban development.
    With over half of the world population living in formal and informal urban settlements, the ongoing crisis has demonstrated the ability of cities to address such challenges but also unearthed fundamental issues of equality, access, and participation amongst others.

  107. Safe spaces offer security and dignity for youth, and help make the world ‘better for all’: Guterres

    10 Aug 2018

    The world’s young people need safe spaces – both physical and digital – where they can “freely express their views” and “pursue their dreams” was the core message of United Nations Secretary-General António Guterres to mark

  108. UN forum spotlights cities, where struggle for sustainability ‘will be won or lost’

    12 Jul 2018

    Although cities are often characterized by stark socioeconomic inequalities and poor environmental conditions, they also offer growth and development potential – making them central to the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and a main focus […]

  109. The multi-dimensional impact of the pandemic, for example, resulted in lockdown measures, the closure of schools, public spaces and cultural institutions, and the rise of unemployment, as well as a collapse of tourism and related incomes in cities notably.
    It exacerbated deep-rooted social and economic inequalities that led to a surge of racism and xenophobia and the proliferation of domestic violence.
    Repercussions are unevenly impacting vulnerable populations, who often live in densely populated or informal areas, have precarious employment and little financial resilience, combined with difficulties in accessing distance education, healthcare and other essential services.
    The pandemic has thus left an indelible mark on the outlook of the cities and has led us to rethink cities’ development in different dimensions – social, cultural, economic, and environmental.

  110. I agree with Ephraim’s comment above

    Lets reflect on all his comment

  111. Planting trees and flowers in the cities to me is a very valuable means of making cities more sustainable. I am urging campus members irrespective of our ideas and projects, taking little steps by planting a tree will go a long way to make cities more sustainable

    eduheal comment here is sustainable for ALL

  112. Cities were amongst the first affected, but also those first to respond.
    Large numbers of people living together, combined with vibrant economic and cultural life, make cities particularly vulnerable to disasters.
    This is also why cities are where numerous creative solutions are devised.
    By providing immediate local responses, as well as rethinking and reinventing urban structures and tissues to be more sustainable, cities have demonstrated their capacity to adapt to the evolving global situation.

  113. In the same way that cities are composed of diverse neighbourhoods, urban development is multifaceted and encompasses different development aspects and dimensions, to cater to cities’ various needs and constant transformation.
    Response to the COVID-19 has shown that this is often a strength, marking the agility with which cities have been able to act and devise locally relevant solutions.
    Future models of urban development should thus recognize and take into account the strong bonds and interlinkages between the diverse dimensions of city planning and development.

  114. The experiences of cities and the innovative solutions that emerged, but also the key challenges they faced, including ways to develop and promote a more resilient and sustainable tourism, can teach us how to create more sustainable and equitable urban living environments for tomorrow and have better-informed policy-making in the coming months.

  115. Cities at the forefront of COVID-19 response and recovery: UNESCO Cities Platform.

  116. UNESCO is uniquely positioned to assist governments and other stakeholders at national and local levels in the recovery processes and in crafting forward-looking solutions.
    Through the UNESCO Cities platform (UCP), which brings together 8 UNESCO city Networks and
    Programmes from all its fields of expertise –
    education, culture, sciences, and communication, UNESCO harnesses its unique comparative advantage and transversal approach to support city decision-makers in mitigating the impact of the COVID-19 crisis.

  117. Built on three interconnected sessions and a special session, the UNESCO Cities Platform aims to use this meeting to bring together diverse city stakeholders and actors to discuss how to revamp urban policies and plans, as well as develop innovative local actions and practices towards sustainable cities of tomorrow in the post-COVID-19 recovery phase and beyond.

  118. As cities manage their immediate response to the COVID-19 pandemic and are looking ahead to plan and resource long-term recovery efforts, there is an opportunity to transform cities in meaningful ways that not only protect vulnerable people from immediate threats but also build resilience for the looming climate crisis and other emergencies.
    This work must be guided by the Sustainable Development Goals, in particular, Goal 11 ‘Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable.’ Other complementary elements may include, use of new technology such as big data and Artificial Intelligence, socio-economic demographics including gender-disaggregated data, consultancy studies, technical and administrative assistance, global inter-city collaboration.

  119. To build the sustainable cities of tomorrow, there is a need to identify gaps in cities’ existing systems, support the needs of their inhabitants, as well as address future risks and known and unknown challenges.
    It is, therefore, necessary to partner with local authorities, communitybased organizations, educational and cultural institutions, the private sector and professionals, for instance.
    In the aftermath of COVID-19, leaving no one behind and reaching the most vulnerable will be fundamental for achieving an equitable and more risk-resilient society.

  120. Epidemics and crisis have always left their mark in the cities’ architecture and planning.
    The one we are currently facing is no exception. However, today, we have the opportunity to build on this crisis to think ahead.
    Today gives us the occasion to build a better city for a better life.

  121. I started this write up with looking at how cities were truly “at the forefront” during the pandemic.
    Cities were or are implementing numerous restrictions, while devising ways to make the lockdown and the pandemic manageable for people and services.
    And while the situation remains difficult in many places, cities have been learning a lot from dealing with the situation Clearly, education, culture and the sciences are key for the success and sustainability of local recovery strategies.
    We have relied on culture as a resource to deal with the crisis, and now, culture and culture professionals need the strong support of decision-makers at local and national levels.

  122. For the long-term recovery, we have glimpsed into the future. The cities of tomorrow would be cities that are more sustainable, that are more “liveable”. They would also be cities that are more inclusive and have devised ways to better live together.

  123. I would like to take this opportunity to once again thank all my co-contestant i’m happy to be with you all in this Campus. It was such a beautiful journey that I will always be cherishing through out my life. I hope the above write ups has been an interesting and inspiring one, that can help us be better prepared, but especially to develop more sustainable and more inclusive ways of living together in cities and beyond.
    Once again, my special thanks to the organizers YCEC for giving us this great platform and the opportunity to interact with all like minded and amazing Entrepreneurs.
    Even if I don’t win, everything worth it. No matter what the result of this competition will be. I have already achieved a lot of my goals already. Because of the people I met and the network that I build. Thank you very much to gave us this opportunity.
    The world need more people with this same energy. We will still apply that things day by day with so much happiness.

  124. Going back to the “normal life” before COVID-19 should not be an option.
    We should seize this moment and focus on the new possibilities triggered by the crisis towards transforming cities into resilient, socially inclusive and green communities.
    And I wanna use this medium to invite you to my page @ https://www.entrepreneurship-campus.org/ideas/26/18576/#vote-container
    To support my unbeatable Idea. Just few days left, let’s keep supporting each other please.

  125. I am in support of what imamu and inyang said,

    UNESCO is uniquely positioned to assist governments and other stakeholders at national and local levels in the recovery processes and in crafting forward-looking solutions.
    Through the UNESCO Cities platform (UCP), which brings together 8 UNESCO city Networks and
    Programmes from all its fields of expertise –
    education, culture, sciences, and communication, UNESCO harnesses its unique comparative advantage and transversal approach to support city decision-makers in mitigating the impact of the COVID-19 crisis.

    UN forum spotlights cities, where struggle for sustainability ‘will be won or lost’

    12 Jul 2018

    Although cities are often characterized by stark socioeconomic inequalities and poor environmental conditions, they also offer growth and development potential – making them central to the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and a main focus […]

  126. Anonymous

    18.09.2020 · Reply

    Health care and Medical

    In order to bring the efforts together to increase health care and medical benefits sustainable cities are working on more green environmental factors that includes more plantation of trees and natural resources.

  127. Anonymous

    18.09.2020 · Reply

    We have examples of Johannesburg and Seoul that set goals over tree planting and encouraging greener environment in the urban areas of the city.

  128. Anonymous

    18.09.2020 · Reply

    People living in metropolis city deprived themselves from the blessings of nature and hence fall early prey of diseases. It’s important to utilize the God’s nature and its gift to ensure healthier breathing environment in big cities.

  129. Anonymous

    18.09.2020 · Reply

    Technology and Energy

    With the help of energy and technology we can fight against all the challenges that we are facing in current time. Technology advancements helped us to find alternative solutions to farming, utilization of water, saving energy, labor efforts and enhancing the process of manufacturing and agricultural needs. Also, we have identified renewable energy option that can be handy in creating healthy and prosperous climate.

  130. Anonymous

    18.09.2020 · Reply

    Building and Construction Material

    Another area where intelligent minds have worked regressively to bring a positive change, A green building concept and effective ways of dealing with the garbage and waste construction of building creates.

  131. Anonymous

    18.09.2020 · Reply

    With the help of technology companies can reduce and smartly control the waste that is product while constructing buildings.

  132. Anonymous

    18.09.2020 · Reply

    On the other hand we have examples of cities like Singapore where companies have built vertical gardens on the top of their buildings to support greener environment.

  133. Anonymous

    18.09.2020 · Reply

    Education for sustainability Social Action

    Keeping all the action plans aside one of the most important step is to create awareness and spreading information about the current situation our planet is facing and how to overcome the climate challenges.

  134. Anonymous

    18.09.2020 · Reply

    We are lucky that technocrats, educationists and globally recognized faces have now step up to support this cause. Celebrities joining NGOs and United Nations to represent each of the climate challenges is a big deal that can bring all the people on one page. Leonardo Di Caprio is aggressively promoting awareness over Global warming and working on the goal to bring education to the people.

  135. Anonymous

    18.09.2020 · Reply

    Public Interest and Investment

    Last but not the least is the bureaucrats and investors’ interest in sustainable city movement. Individuals, private companies and business sectors are now coming forward to invest in the cause to make a city sustainable and a better place for people to live in.

  136. Anonymous

    18.09.2020 · Reply

    We have number of set examples now with us that have created history in setting benchmark for other leading cities.

  137. Anonymous

    18.09.2020 · Reply

    Here we have shortlisted top ten sustainable cities that have achieved and already working on their future goals to overcome the challenges over planet is facing in terms of climate and global warming. Let’s have a look at those top ten eco-friendly cities destinations.

    1. Reykjavik, Iceland:

    Apart from scenic landscapes and peaceful places to check out during holidays this city is listed as one of the top eco-friendly cities for two reasons.

  138. Anonymous

    18.09.2020 · Reply

    Their population is only 126,100 people, one of the biggest reasons why their environment is under control as it’s easier for the city government to spread awareness and take mutual action plans.

  139. Anonymous

    18.09.2020 · Reply

    They promote alternative mode of transport like bicycles and public transport which enables them to reduce gas emissions. News is that they will be introducing buses that will run on Hydrogen gas. Production is already underway for such vehicles.

  140. Anonymous

    18.09.2020 · Reply

    2. Vancouver, Canada

    Vancouver is surrounded by mountains, ocean and forest, which makes it one of the desired places to travel. Vancouver city is focusing on lowering their greenhouse gas emission and have set goals to achieve greener, safer and healthier environment for the city people

  141. More examples of eco-friendly cities destinations.
    Helsinki, Finland

    Situated in Finland, Helsinki is one of the most visited cities and hence due to increased tourism they have enforced a complete eco-friendly accommodation system for tourists. Almost all the hotels in Helsinki are certified environmental friendly places.

  142. Cape Town, South Africa

    Another most traveled and visited cities in the world are Cape Town, their city government has worked on alternative energy use to contribute in the environment friendly atmosphere.

  143. They are more focused to build green places in the urban area of the city for public to feel more environmentally healthy.

  144. San Francisco, California

    San Francisco is in the list of top ten eco-friendly cities because they worked on water consumption, public transport, green building projects, Co2 emission reduction systems and alternative energy usage. Its high ranked among all other North American cities as the most eco-friendly place to visit.

  145. Bristol, England

    It’s considered second best city in the world in terms of environmental performances run by any city. As per the survey report of 2015 Bristol managed to save energy use by 16%. Their goal is to reduce Co2 emissions by 40% by 2020.

  146. Anonymous

    18.09.2020 · Reply

    Oslo, Norway

    Yes, Oslo is the world’s greenest and most eco-friendly city awarded by the European Sustainable City in 2003. Some of the recognized action plans taken by the city were;

  147. Anonymous

    18.09.2020 · Reply

    Use of bikes- a rental system allows people to take bikes to offices. Which indirectly enables them to reduce the use of cars and buses
    They gave up on oil heating process in buildings to support renewable energy program.

  148. Oslo, Norway

    Yes, Oslo is the world’s greenest and most eco-friendly city awarded by the European Sustainable City in 2003. Some of the recognized action plans taken by the city were;

    THIS IS OKAY

  149. FOREWORDDear Colleagues,Dear Friends,It gives me great pleasure to present UN-Habitat’s Strategic Plan for the period 2020-2023.The basis of the Plan is UN-Habitat’s new vision of “a better quality of life for all in an urbanizing world”. This vision is encapsulated in the Plan’s 4 domains of change namely:• Reduced spatial inequality and poverty in communities across the urban – rural continuum; • Enhanced shared prosperity of cities and regions; • Strengthened climate action and improved urban environment; and • Effective urban crisis prevention and response. Whilst the formulation of the Plan was a major task, I expect its implementation to be both challenging and rewarding. For the agency, we now have a robust and clear strategic focus to guide our work in positively transforming lives in cities and communities around the world. We are also well-positioned to take a leading role in this mission for we have a significant presence in Asia and Africa where 90 per cent of urban growth is forecasted to happen in the next 30 years. In fact, by 2050 seventy per cent of the world population is predicted to live in urban settlements. Well-planned and well-governed cities are therefore the future as they will help address issues related to poverty, social exclusion and spatial inequality, shared prosperity, climate and the environment, and various forms of crisis. This was reinforced in Quito in 2016 at Habitat III, when Member States adopted the New Urban Agenda, a framework that contributes to the implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Sustainable urban development can have a positive catalytic impact on development and deliver improved living conditions for those furthest behind. Well-planned urbanization resulting in efficient cities and towns can help drive the sustainable development agenda across social and cultural change, environmental protection and economic growth. In addition, sustainable urban transformation presents an opportunity to work with all types of actors and communities, particularly those traditionally excluded from such processes. But we must act now.The implementation of the Strategic Plan must continue to reflect our new vision and renewed focus on impact. Consequently, we are firmly moving beyond only focusing on processes and outputs to being more outcome and impact-oriented. In this regard, the implementation of the Plan will be driven through global flagship programmes, which will have the benefits of (i) reducing fragmentation in our work, including a better connection between normative and operational elements; (ii) increasing predictability of funding and enhancing flexibility in the implementation of priorities agreed in the Strategic Plan;

    READ THIS NOW

  150. he Strategic Plan for 2020–2023 repositions UN-Habitat as a major global entity, a centre of excellence and innovation. In that respect, the organization is refocusing its niche position as the “thought leader” and the go-to programme for issues pertaining to its work, setting the global discourse and agenda on sustainable urban development

  151. n its resolution 26/3, adopted at its twenty-sixth session, in May 2017, the Governing Council of the United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-Habitat) requested the Executive Director to consult and work closely with the Committee of Permanent Representatives during the preparation of a results-oriented six-year strategic plan for the period 2020–20251 and present it to the Governing Council at its twenty-seventh session. Accordingly, the present document sets out the Strategic Plan for 2020-2023, which was endorsed by the Committee of Permanent Representatives at its seventy-first regular meeting, on 6 December 2018 and subsequently approved by the UN-Habitat Assembly at its first session organized from 27 to 31 May 2019 in Nairobi.

  152. The Strategic Plan for 2020–2023 repositions UN-Habitat as a major global entity, a centre of excellence and innovation. In that respect, the organization is refocusing its niche position as the “thought leader” and the go-to programme for issues pertaining to its work, setting the global discourse and agenda on sustainable urban development, driving political discussion, generating specialized and cutting-edge knowledge, shaping technical norms, principles and standards, and acting as a multiplier in the exchange of knowledge, experience and best practice in getting cities and other human settlements right. 3.Chapter 1, entitled “Changin

  153. Chapter 1, entitled “Changing for increased impact”, sets out the recalibrated vision, mission and sharpened focus of UN-Habitat, while highlighting the challenges posed and opportunities offered by a rapidly urbanizing world.

  154. Chapter 2, entitled “Strategic choices”, details the strategic focus of UN-Habitat for the period 2020–2025, crafted around four mutually reinforcing goals or “domains of change”, namely (i) reduced spatial inequality and poverty in communities across the urban–rural continuum; (ii) enhanced shared prosperity of cities and regions; (iii) strengthened climate action and improved urban environment; and (iv) effective urban crisis prevention and response

  155. Chapter 3, entitled “New ways of working”, sets out the main points of the implementation arrangements for the Strategic Plan, full details of which are provided in companion documents to the present Strategic Plan.

  156. The process of developing the Strategic Plan has taken into account General Assembly resolution 70/1, Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, the outcome document of the United Nations summit for the adoption of the post-2015 development agenda, and the Sustainable Development Goals; the Addis Ababa Action Agenda of the Third International Conference on Financing for Development; the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030; the Paris Agreement under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change; the New York Declaration for Refugees and Migrants; and the New Urban Agenda. It has also factored in lessons learned from the implementation of the Strategic Plan for 2014–2019 and considered the internal change process currently being carried out by UN-Habitat, as well as the overall reform process of the United Nations, particularly the reform of the United Nations development system. Furthermore, the preparation of the Strategic Plan has been marked by an unprecedented inclusive and participatory process, which involved Member States, UN-Habitat staff in Nairobi and in the field, agencies of the United Nations system, and networks of partners and stakeholders

  157. 01Changing for increased impact

  158. Sustainable urbanization is central to the realization of the global development goals as set out in a suite of global agreements signed in 2015 and 2016, including, most importantly, General Assembly resolution 70/1, Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, the outcome document of the United Nations summit for the adoption of the post-2015 development agenda, held in New York from 25 to 27 September 2015, and the Sustainable Development Goals; the Addis Ababa Action Agenda of the Third International Conference on Financing for Development; the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030, adopted at the Third United Nations World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction; the Paris Agreement under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change; General Assembly Resolution 71/1, the New York Declaration for Refugees and Migrants; and General Assembly resolution 70/256, the New Urban Agenda, the outcome document of the United Nations Conference on Housing and Sustainable Urban Development (Habitat III).

  159. The Strategic Plan creates a strong narrative of change, clearly setting out the relationship between sustainable urbanization and the broader overall notion of sustainable development. It is focused on creating a positive impact and outcomes for those currently being left behind, including women and youth, in cities and other human settlements

  160. The United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-Habitat) Strategic Plan for the period 2020–2023 focuses on the commitment and contribution of UN-Habitat to the implementation of those global development agendas, in particular the pledge in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development to leave no one behind. Through its normative and operational work, as well as its coordination and focal point roles in the United Nations system, UN-Habitat aims to advance sustainable urbanization as a driver of development and peace, to improve living conditions for all.

  161. What are the impacts of urban agriculture programs on food security in low and middle-income countries?

    Background

    Issues of food security and nutrition have wide reaching implications for people and their environments, particularly in low and middle-income countries. One proposed solution is urban agriculture, which has been widely upheld as a solution to the food-crisis facing increasingly metropolitan populations. It is believed to provide the urban poor with food and a source of potential income, whilst improving the urban environment and reducing pressure on finite farmland. Although it faded from many development agendas in the 1990’s, urban agriculture has seen a resurgence since a peak in global food prices in the late 2000’s. There are, however, potential disadvantages to this increasing drive for urban agriculture including associated urban health risks and implications for the environment. The usage of waste-water, for example, may contaminate produced food and intensive irrigation might lead to the spread of malaria and water borne diseases, as well as threatening already limited water supplies. Soil erosion and the intensive use of fertilizers and pesticides might also present health risks to urban populations and damage the environment. Despite the potential benefits and harms of urban agriculture, the evidence-base is not well understood. Given the current policy drive to promote urban agriculture, there is an urgent need to understand its effects on urban populations and their environments.
    Methods/design

    This review will seek out, select, appraise and synthesise evidence on the impacts of urban agriculture on food security and nutrition. We will employ systematic review methodology to ensure that our review of the evidence is comprehensive, transparent and replicable. In addition to searching electronic databases, we will examine websites and contact academics, practitioners and policy-makers for relevant research. All potentially relevant literature will be screened against pre-specified criteria and assessed for risk of bias using established critical appraisal tools. This is to ensure that we only include the evidence in which we have confidence. Depending on the nature of the available data, we will then synthesise the available evidence using statistical meta-analysis and/or narrative synthesis. Our findings will be disseminated in a variety of ways to ensure that the evidence is available for policy-makers and practitioners.
    Background
    The emergence of urban agriculture

    The twenty-first century has often been described as ‘the first urban century’. Unprecedented rural–urban migration has led to rapid urban growth. Whilst in 1900 a mere 13 per cent of the world’s population lived in urban areas, the UN-Habitat [1] estimates that by 2030 this level will have risen to 60 per cent. Furthermore, virtually all of this population growth over the next few decades will be absorbed by cities in low and middle-income countries, thus increasing the pressure on urban resources and administrations that are often already exhausted.

    Among the most pressing needs of any urban agglomeration is the question of urban food security and ensuring the right to food. Urban populations depend on the reliable and stable availability of food products, as well as affordable and convenient access to them. High levels of urban income poverty paired with rising food prices, however, often make the formal urban food supply system unaffordable and inaccessible to the urban poor. An informal supply system, consisting of street vendors, informal markets, home-based enterprises as well as urban agriculture (UA), exists alongside formal interventions. These informal networks predominantly satisfy the urban poor’s demand for easily accessible – though not often cheaper – foodstuffs.
    Approaches to urban agriculture

    Whilst urban decision makers and academics alike have identified UA as the most beneficial and promising pillar of informal food supply systems [2–7], the evidence for such claims is unclear. Although UA has been an integral part of urban livelihoods throughout human history [6], the concept only came to the fore in the late 1980s/early 1990s, evoking interest among international donors and development practitioners. A United Nations Development Program (UNDP) report compiled by Smit et al. [7] estimated that it reached, in the early 1990s, some 800 million urban dwellers who used UA as a livelihood strategy. Some scholars [8, 9] even argue that UA presented some kind of a ‘magic bullet’ or panacea to eradicate hunger and poverty in urban areas. A number of studies with promising titles such as ‘hunger-proof cities’, ‘Agropolis’ and ‘Cities feeding people’ [10] indicate the potential associated with UA. Critics nevertheless quickly pointed to the weak empirical evidence of some of these studies and the low overall scale of UA amongst urban poor [11]. During the first years of the urban century, UA had therefore slipped past the focus of the international development community. Yet the peak of global food prices in 2008 shed a new light on the idea of locally produced food products and households’ subsistence production. UA subsequently once more was portrayed as a major intervention to improve urban food security [12].

    Renewed interest in UA amongst scholars and policy makers is a positive development since local and international environments have changed greatly since the 1980s and 1990s, when most of the initial research on the concept was conducted [10]. In its Growth and Development Strategy (GDS) 2040, the City of Johannesburg, for example, identifies UA as its main intervention to address food security within the city [13]. On a global scale, the UN High Level Task Force on the Global Food Crisis [14] identified UA as a strategy to alleviate urban food insecurity and build cities that are more resilient to crisis. A joint World Bank (WB)/Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO) paper of the same year ( [15]: 5) also expressed that “the World Bank and FAO, … will promote [urban poverty alleviation] related programs and projects in the context of the MDGs and more specifically MDG1 ‘Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger’ and MDG7 ‘Ensure environmental sustainability’.” These two MDGs seem interrelated because food insecurity is associated with poor environmental management in terms of, for example, over-fishing in lakes, bushmeat and killing of wild herds (Bow year), and also with an exploited environment. This makes achieving food security difficult. The FAO, moreover, published the Urban producers resource book (2007) as an outcome of its ‘Food for the city’ program. This program forms part of a wider network of organisations, consisting of the UNDP/UN-Habitat ‘Sustainable Cities Program’, the IDRC’s ‘Urban Poverty and Environment’ program, and the Resource Centre on Urban Agriculture and Food Security (RUAF), which all strongly advocate the recommendation of UA as a tool to address urban food insecurity. In light of this strong support for UA one must note, however, that some fundamental questions regarding this intervention remain unanswered. Renewed interest in the topic did not necessarily converge with new knowledge about UA; little is known about the true extent and impact of UA in urban livelihoods.
    Definitions of urban agriculture

    Urban agriculture is not easily defined, as a large variety of urban farming systems exist internationally, with varying characteristics depending on local socio-economic, geographic and political conditions. The most widely used definition of UA was developed by Luc Mougeot [16]. Using technical criteria of UA he explained that,

    (u)rban agriculture is an industry located within (intra-urban) or on the fringe (peri-urban) of a town, a city or a metropolis, which grows and raises, processes and distributes a diversity of food and non-food products, (re-)using largely human and material resources, products and services found in and around that urban area, and in turn supplying human and material resources, products and services largely to that urban area. [16]

    Urban cultivation thus can include a wide variety of activities. Mougeot [16], as well as Smit et al. in UNDP [7], identify a number of common dimensions of UA, which are displayed in Figure 1. Economic activities refer to the differentiation of the production, processing and marketing phases in UA interventions. Each phase requires a different set of skills and results in different profit and income margins for urban farmers. Location entails two different notions. Whilst most definitions place UA “in (within) and around cities or urban areas” [7, 17], the actual boundaries of rural, urban and peri-urban areas are often not clearly defined. Moreover, a distinction must be drawn between the concepts of peri-urban and interurban. The second aspect of location deals with the actual sites of production. These include on and off plot locations, i.e. on the same plot of land where one reside, or elsewhere, accessed under certain modalities (cession, lease, sharing, authorised or illegal), home, rooftop or community gardens, as well as commercial sites. Scale, on the other hand, refers to and determines the overall contribution of UA to urban households and economic systems. A wide variety of products result from UA and can best be classified according to their respective methods of production. Horticulture, animal husbandry, aqua culture and forestry can all be found in urban locations and generate products ranging from, inter alia, fruits and vegetables, dairy products, meat, fish, herbs and firewood. In terms of end-points, UA’s products can either be used for consumption, surplus sale or trade and commercial activities. Actors in UA display a similar diversity. Whilst early literature assumed UA to be a livelihood strategy, almost exclusively used by low-income groups and rural migrants to the city in order to increase household levels of food security, most scholars today identify a wider range of actors in UA [18]. Middle-income households often engage in UA to generate supplementary income while more disadvantaged households may lack access to the resources needed to sustain profitable urban farming, such as capital and land. In many high-income households, UA features as the preferred mode of ensuring a more environmentally friendly form of food production. In theory, urban food production increases the amount of green spaces in urban areas (vacant land and old industrial sites are often used), and enhances biodiversity [19]. In general then, the concept of UA is closely intertwined with the notions of urban food security, nutrition [20], sustainability and the environment, but also with ideas of beautification, leisure and exercise, and social interaction.

  162. Anonymous

    19.09.2020 · Reply

    Sponge Cities: What is it all about?

    The 34 hectares urban storm water park in the city of Harbin in northern China is an example of successful Sponge City intervention. The storm water park provides multiple ecosystems services: it collects, cleanses and stores storm water and lets it infiltrate it into the aquifers. At the same time it protects and recovers the native natural habitats and provides an aesthetically appealing public space for recreational use.

    Sponge City. Yet another term on the growing list next to regenerative, sustainable, green, eco, resilient, low-impact, future proofing, zero-carbon, and the list goes on.

    Strange as it may sound, this term has actually gained a huge amount of support, especially in China. In fact, the Chinese government has already chosen 16 pilot cities and allocated to each of them between 400 and 600 million yuan for the implementation of innovative water management strategies that would gradually transform these cities into “Sponge Cities”.

    What are the key issues the Sponge City wants to solve?

    Before explaining in more detail what a Sponge City actually is, it is important to appreciate the main issues that the Sponge City intends to tackle. These are mainly four:

    Less water available in urban and peri-urban areas. First of all, a key question we need to answer to explain this issue is: Where do we get the water that comes out of our taps? Many times it is actually coming from aquifers underneath our feet. As it rain, water is absorbed by the ground and naturally filtered by the soil. We can then extract this water by drilling wells into the ground and pumping water out of it. The water is then collected and treated before is distributed across the city and can reach every tap in each of our houses and offices. The problem is that extensive urbanization and urban sprawling led to the formation of thousands of square kilometres of impermeable areas made up of impervious roads, pavements, roofs and parking lots that do not allow water to be absorbed into the ground but that simply collect the rainwater through the urban drainage infrastructure and channel it into rivers, lakes or into the sea. This traditional type of design led to the creation of cities which are increasingly impermeable and have an increasingly greater impact on the natural water cycle. In practise this means that since less rain water is allowed to filter through the urban soil, less water is available to be extracted from aquifers in urban and peri-urban areas.
    Polluted water discharged into rivers or the sea. Another key issues is related to the fact that rain water and wastewater (namely water from our sinks and toilets) is collected by one single drainage system. This drainage system (imagine one big pipe) collects all the rain water (when it rains) and the wastewater from our houses and directs it to a wastewater treatment plant where it gets treated before it is discharged again into rivers or the sea. When it rains, many times the wastewater treatment plant cannot accommodate all the water that the drainage systems carries. Therefore much of the rain water mixed with the wastewater is discharged untreated into rivers. The more impermeable the city is, the more water will be mixed with wastewater and will not be able to be treated but discharged directly into rivers. This increases the level of pollution of local water bodies.
    Degradation of urban ecosystems and green areas due to sprawling. This led to a considerable loss of urban biodiversity, a drop in available green areas for natural ground filtration of storm water, a decrease in CO2 capture by plants, fewer spaces for natural cooling through urban green microclimates and generally less liveable, healthy, comfortable and attractive public spaces.
    Increase in the intensity and frequency of urban flooding particularly considering predicted increase in extreme weather events due to climate change. As the absorbing capacity of the urban surface is decreased, storm flooding risk is increased. Flooding leads to increased groundwater pollution and has considerable impact in terms of damage to properties and health related issues.

    What is a Sponge City?

    The Sponge City indicates a particular type of city that does not act like an impermeable system not allowing any water to filter through the ground, but, more like a sponge, actually absorbs the rain water, which is then naturally filtered by the soil and allowed to reach into the urban aquifers. This allows for the extraction of water from the ground through urban or peri-urban wells. This water can be easily treated and used for the city water supply.

    What does a Sponge City need in practise?

    A sponge cities needs to be abundant with spaces that allow water to seep through them. Instead of only impermeable concrete and asphalt, the city needs more:

    Contiguous open green spaces, interconnected waterways, channels and ponds across neighbourhoods that can naturally detain and filter water as well as foster urban ecosystems, boost bio-diversity and create cultural and recreational opportunities.
    Green roofs that can retain rainwater and naturally filters it before it is recycled or released into the ground.
    Porous design interventions across the city, including construction of bio-swales and bio-retention systems to detain run-off and allow for groundwater infiltration; porous roads and pavements that can safely accommodate car and pedestrian traffic while allowing water to be absorbed, permeate and recharge groundwater; drainage systems that allow trickling of water into the ground or that direct storm water run-off into green spaces for natural absorption
    Water savings and recycling, including extending water recycling particularly of grey water at the building block level, incentivizing consumers to save water through increased tariffs for increase in consumption, raising awareness campaigns, and improved smart monitoring systems to identify leakages and inefficient use of water.

    What are the benefits of a Sponge City?

    There is wide range of benefits associated with the implementation of sponge cities. These include:

    More clean water for the city. Replenished groundwater and thus greater accessibility to water resources for cities. This also entails greater water self-sufficiency which allows cities to increasingly rely on water sources from within their boundaries
    Cleaner groundwater due to the increase volume of naturally filtered storm water. This means lower environmental and health costs due to considerable decrease in water pollution
    Reduction in flood risk as the city offers more permeable spaces for the natural retention and percolation of water. This leads to better resilience and in particular greater ability to deal with higher flood risks resulting from climate change
    Lower burdens on drainage systems, water treatment plant, artificial channels and natural streams. This also entails lower costs for drainage and treatment infrastructure
    Greener, healthier, more enjoyable urban spaces. Greener urban spaces improve quality of life, create more pleasant landscape aesthetics and recreational areas that are enjoyable and attract people. This also means increase in land value due to aesthetically more pleasing, cleaner and healthier open spaces close to private properties
    Enriched biodiversity around green open spaces, wetlands, urban gardens and green rooftops

  163. People who lack proper housing can’t be expected to adhere to all the COVID-19 hygiene guidelines. According to the UN, about 24-percent of the world’s urban population lives in slums and informal settlements. Without financial support or jobs, vulnerable people are at a higher risk of becoming homeless. On the other hand, numerous women and children have found themselves in abusive situations as they were unable to live their homes or cities because of mobility restrictions.

  164. The Covid-19 pandemic is causing significant social and economic impacts across large parts of the world. At the time of writing the number of Covid-19 cases worldwide has reached 7.2 million, while the death toll has exceeded 400,000.1Governments and healthcare systems are facing the immense challenge of trying to control the spread of the virus and to prevent hospitals from being overwhelmed as millions of individuals remain subject to lock down and face significant economic uncertainty. In order to respond to these un-precedented challenges it is important for policy makers and health care professionals tounderstand which groups of individuals suffer the highest morbidity and mortality risks from Covid-19 and which factors may exacerbate these risks.

  165. Anonymous

    19.09.2020 · Reply

    Copenhagen, Denmark

    Denmark is one of the top nations that are known for greener landmarks, healthy dairy products and established farming systems.

  166. Anonymous

    19.09.2020 · Reply

    They managed to achieve 50% mark in reducing Carbon emission successfully, they also emphasis on organic food and hence one of the reason why people of Denmark looks fresh and healthy.

  167. Anonymous

    19.09.2020 · Reply

    9. Zurich, Switzerland

    Ranked on the top of the list of sustainable cities back in 2016, Zurich aims to use only 2000 watts per person by 2050.

  168. Anonymous

    19.09.2020 · Reply

    City is focused on using renewable energy projects and invests big time in sustainable energy plans.

  169. Anonymous

    19.09.2020 · Reply

    It’s one of the most visited places by tourists and hence they are eventually playing a vital role in showcasing the most eco-friendly environment to the visitors.

  170. Anonymous

    19.09.2020 · Reply

    10. Malmo, Sweden

    Working on its plan to become one of the top eco-friendly cities, Malmo, Sweden is already in our list. They are set to achieve their goal of treating soil contamination and on reduction of greenhouse emissions by 2030.

  171. Anonymous

    19.09.2020 · Reply

    Facts are getting straight and its more serious then we can imagine. People are now taking responsibility on an individual level to improve the polluted environment.

  172. Anonymous

    19.09.2020 · Reply

    We can hope that in 10-15 years the challenges we are facing now will be resolved. If not, we will do our best in the meanwhile

  173. Anonymous

    19.09.2020 · Reply

    WAYS TO BUILD MORE SUSTAINABLE CITIES

    December 16, 2015 — As global population grows, urban population is growing even faster — with 2.5 billion more city dwellers expected by 2050, according to the United Nations.

  174. Anonymous

    19.09.2020 · Reply

    And while urbanization can bring benefits in terms of economies of scale, social cohesion, technological innovation, transportation efficiency and more, cities can also be breeding grounds for poverty, pollution and malaise.

  175. Anonymous

    19.09.2020 · Reply

    To help inspire cities to make the most of the opportunities and minimize downsides of growth, the World Economic Forum recently published “Top Ten Urban Innovations,” showcasing new ideas for boosting urban sustainability. The examples fall into four broad categories: better using underused capacity, evening out demand over time, encouraging small-scale infrastructure, and people-centered design.
    Each includes a “why” and “what” as

  176. Anonymous

    19.09.2020 · Reply

    well as an assessment of the potential for improving global well-being. Most also include a list of links for more information. Here’s a quick summary

  177. Anonymous

    19.09.2020 · Reply

    Reprogramming Space

    In growing cities, the need for infrastructure can quickly outpace our ability to build it.

  178. Anonymous

    19.09.2020 · Reply

    Vancouver, Glasgow, New York and others are tackling this head-on by repurposing and densifying use of existing urban land rather than building out, and by designing buildings in a way that allows them to switch functions — for example, from a theater to a night club — as needs change.

  179. Anonymous

    19.09.2020 · Reply

    An Internet of Pipes

    Clean, readily available water supplies are a growing concern for growing cities.

  180. Anonymous

    19.09.2020 · Reply

    Efforts to meet future needs include a variety of Internet-based innovations aimed at managing water challenges such as flood control, rainwater management, supply distribution, pipe leakage reduction and sanitation management.

  181. Anonymous

    19.09.2020 · Reply

    Twitter for Trees

    Urban trees help reduce temperature extremes, moderate stormwater surges, sequester carbon and capture nutrients from runoff.

  182. Anonymous

    19.09.2020 · Reply

    Melbourne is boosting interest in and appreciation for urban forests by inviting its residents to adopt and name individual trees and share updates, including carbon offset and other information, via social media.

  183. In addition to juliusanayochukwu’s comment,
    Augmented Humans

    People-powered transit not only helps make cities cleaner and less congested, it also can boost human health and well-being.

  184. But bicycling can sometimes seem too demanding for a workday commute. To make it more appealing and accessible, innovators are developing products such as the Copenhagen Wheel, a bike that runs partly on a battery recharged by braking and downhill travel.

  185. Anonymous

    19.09.2020 · Reply

    Co-heating, Co-cooling, CO2 Capture

    Co-generation facilities boost energy efficiency by taking waste heat from electricity generation and using it to heat or cool buildings. For even more benefit, the carbon dioxide generated in the process can be captured and used for horticulture, manufacturing or other applications

  186. Brilliant!

    ” The main feature of a sponge city structure is to capture rainwater and to redistribute more slowly in cities that a prone to sudden floods because of storms or hurricanes. The buildings use natural materials that absorb water that is stored in wells and can be reused again.”

  187. With the global effort to reduce the spread of the virus, it has become clear that government intervention may not be enough to tackle the looming economic crisis caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, especially in Africa — the continent worst hit financially.
    Read about the 6 young #Africanentrepreneurs, Dr Abiodun Adereni, Nkem Okocha, Olivia Onyemaobi, Mohamed A Kamara, Marie Christina Kolo and Laud Anthony W. Basing rising to the challenge, launching innovative business ideas, and collaborating to support communities on the latest edition of the African Entrepreneurship Digest – https://bit/2DANOyE

  188. Afrik Designers, a social start-up with the mission to solve social and economic problems within our community in Nigeria have since embarked on a response plan to the pandemic.
    As a way of contributing to reduce the spread of the virus. My self Umar Imam, and my humble Co-Founder Cynthia Mbamalu began the distribution of 10,000 face masks to nurses and traditional birth attendants in primary health centres and rural areas, as well as pregnant women and nursing mothers in underserved communities, and we ensure safe and hygienic delivery.
    Afrik Designers is a start-up retail that will be officially launched in March 2021 here in Nigeria.
    I’m inviting you to our Page to read our idea. @

    https://www.entrepreneurship-campus.org/ideas/26/18576/#vote-container

  189. Afrik Designers, a social start-up with the mission to solve social and economic problems within our community.
    We have since embarked on a response plan to the pandemic.
    As a way of contributing to reduce the spread of the virus. My self Umar Imam, and my humble Co-Founder Cynthia Mbamalu began the distribution of 10,000 face masks to nurses and traditional birth attendants in primary health centres and rural areas, as well as pregnant women and nursing mothers in underserved communities, and we ensure safe and hygienic delivery.
    Afrik Designers is a start-up retail that will be officially launched in March 2021 here in Nigeria.
    I’m inviting you to our Page to read our idea BUILDING THE INFRASTRUCTURE FOR AFRICAN CULTURE. @

    https://www.entrepreneurship-campus.org/ideas/26/18576/#vote-container

  190. Tech giants are profiting — and getting more powerful — even as the global economy tanks:

    The global pandemic gives Silicon Valley titans a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to expand their power, crush rivals and change their political fortunes.

    SAN FRANCISCO — Tech titans spent much of the last year playing defense, fending off dozens of federal and state antitrust investigations and a public wary of their power.

    But the global coronavirus pandemic is prompting a dramatic reversal of fortune for the tech giants. Amazon and Facebook are capitalizing on the fact that they are viewed as essential services for a public in lockdown, while Google and Apple are building tools that will enable state health departments to provide a critical public service, tracing the course of potential new covid-19 infections.

    The pace of the probes against these companies has slowed as regulators and lawyers are forced to work from home. Emboldened tech lobbyists are fighting to delay the enforcement of a new privacy law this summer in California, saying they can’t comply by the July deadline due to the upheaval.
    And while the global economy faces potential unemployment and contraction not seen since the Great Depression, the tech giants — and a handful of medium-size ones — are already benefiting from new consumer habits initiated during the lockdowns that analysts believe will turn into longer-term shifts in how people shop, work and entertain themselves. The broader stock markets tanked in recent weeks, but share prices of Amazon and Microsoft hit at or near records. Facebook is moving to acquire high-skilled talent, announcing the hiring of 10,000 new workers this year.

    IMF says the covid crisis will bring on the biggest economic contraction since the Great Depression

    The tech giants‘ deep pockets will enable them to withstand the coming global economic recession, a stark contrast to what industry insiders and analysts expect to be the biggest shake-up of the tech landscape in years. As many start-ups collapse, tech giants will expand on the power they’ve accumulated using the playbook of the last decade: snapping up talent, buying or copying rivals, and eroding traditional industries. Some of those weakened companies may disappear altogether and cede even more territory to tech.

    Former Google CEO Eric Schmidt said at a recent virtual panel that the most powerful companies have the ability to bounce back far more quickly than others. “When you have an industry leader, and something collapses, the industry leader, if it’s well-managed, tends to emerge stronger a year later,” he said;
    Facebook and Google declined to comment. Apple did not respond to requests for comment. Amazon spokesman Dan Perlet said in a statement, “While we appreciate the opportunity as a retailer to serve customers and are seeing increased demand for essential products, there are no winners out of Covid-19.”

    (Amazon founder and chief executive Jeff Bezos owns The Washington Post.)
    As the tech giants start announcing quarterly earnings this week, Big Tech‘s current position is far better than in previous market crashes. In the dot-com bust of 2001, Google was not yet public. Amazon almost went bankrupt, losing 90 percent of its value in two years. The crash was seen as a crisis of Silicon Valley’s own making, as money flooded into thousands of frothy, pie-in-the-sky start-ups with unsound business models.
    During the Great Recession in 2008 and 2009, large technology companies were hit along with the global economy. Facebook was still privately held. The combined value of the five richest companies — ExxonMobil, General Electric, Microsoft, AT&T and Procter & Gamble — was $1.6 trillion. Today, tech giants occupy those top spots. Microsoft, currently the most valuable company in the world, is worth $1.3 trillion alone.
    “There are really two Americas right now,” said Scott Galloway, a marketing professor at the New York University Stern School of Business and author of “The Four: The Hidden DNA of Amazon, Apple, Facebook, and Google.” “There is Big Tech and there is everyone else. They can do what very few companies can do, which is play offense in the middle of a pandemic.”

    Meanwhile, over 250 start-ups have already shed more than 30,000 jobs since March 11, according to Layoffs.fyi, which tracks Silicon Valley layoffs and furloughs. A recent survey of 400 investors and founders by the venture capital firm NFX found that more than half of start-ups said they had initiated a hiring freeze or had lowered their value in the hopes of attracting new investment. Start-ups that have raised hundreds of millions of dollars, such as the scooter company Bird, have laid off large portions of their workforce. The company made the tough decision to lay people off — over a minutes-long Zoom call — to keep the company afloat through 2021, according to a company memo reviewed by The Post.

    “Every start-up and every investor is having these conversations right now,” said investor Roy Bahat, head of Bloomberg Beta, a venture fund backed by Bloomberg LP. “We’re telling the start-ups we invest in that the safest assumption is that the next time you can raise money again is never.”
    Review service Yelp, however, could face an even bigger blow. Yelp for years has complained that Google has copied its services and used its power to redirect people away from the company’s listings in search results. Now the company is laying off or furloughing more than 2,000 people — over a third of its workforce. Unlike Google, which has diversified ad revenue and huge cash reserves, Yelp generates almost all its revenue from advertising by local brick-and-mortar businesses, like salons and gyms. Interest in those business categories alone has fallen more than 73 percent, chief executive Jeremy Stoppelman said in a blog post.
    Yelp declined to comment.

    Inside Google, a cautious attitude prevails as the search company anticipates significant losses in income from advertising in the coming months, particularly from the travel, entertainment and retail industries, according to people who work there, who, like others, spoke on the condition of anonymity to talk freely without having to get company authorization. Estimates by eMarketer predict overall spending on search and display advertising, which constitute Google’s core businesses, could drop by at least 20 percent or be as high as 38 percent in the quarter starting April 1.

    “The entire global economy is hurting, and Google and Alphabet are not immune to the effects of this global pandemic,” Sundar Pichai, chief executive of Alphabet, Google’s parent company, wrote in an email to staff this month. “We exist in an ecosystem of partnerships and interconnected businesses, many of whom are feeling significant pain.”
    But he tempered the warnings, promising no major layoffs. The company would “be slowing down the pace of hiring, while maintaining momentum in a few strategic areas,” Pichai said.

    Google, however, may benefit in a key way from the crisis, as tech giants’ relationship with the federal government transforms. Over the last year, the Justice Department and the Federal Trade Commission have launched probes into Apple, Amazon, Facebook and Google for potential antitrust violations, and more than 40 state attorneys general have announced wide-ranging inquiries into the business practices of Google and Facebook. Last year, the FTC levied the largest fine in the agency’s history against Facebook for violating user privacy during the Cambridge Analytica scandal, in which the company enabled the Trump-affiliated political consultancy to breach personal data from tens of millions of Americans.
    Inquiries are slowed in the short term as everyone works from home, said Gary Reback, a Silicon Valley antitrust lawyer whose clients are involved in several of the federal probes.
    “How much can you compel a company to do something when they are in lockdown? So if they want an extension or want a delay, what are you going to say?” he asked. “This situation plays best for the companies that have been under investigation.”

    At the same time, the public is becoming more reliant on tech giants’ services, while governments outsource critical work to them. California Gov. Gavin Newsom (D) uses models and slides derived from location data from Google and Facebook to show possibilities for the path of new infections. Health departments around the country are working with Google and Apple to conduct contact tracing.
    The Association of National Advertisers, a lobbying group representing Google and Facebook, is actively pushing the attorney general of California to delay the final regulations and enforcement of the state’s landmark Consumer Privacy Act, set to go into effect this summer. In several letters, the group has argued that the regulations, which require companies to provide data that they hold about consumers and allow for consumers to request deletions of data, are too onerous to comply with now that company lawyers are working from home.
    As the economic contraction continues and start-ups die off, the largest firms may also be some of the only companies in the position to do any hiring. In a recent interview, Sheryl Sandberg, chief operating officer of Facebook, made a point of highlighting that the company would create 10,000 new positions this year in engineering and product roles.

    That contrasts with invitations and ticketing company Eventbrite, which had to lay off or furlough nearly half its staff. While invites to virtual events are booming, the company is suffering due to the cancellation of many events and the resulting loss of its cut of ticket sales.

    Eventbrite Chief Executive Julia Hartz said the choice to lay people off was “heartbreaking,” but necessary. “We knew early on that we needed to take bold action in order to survive this time,” she said. She sees the surge in virtual events as a potential business opportunity.
    Eventbrite has referred some laid off employees to Facebook, she added.

    Meanwhile, Facebook’s rival event team responded to the pandemic by moving their people onto other product teams that have exploded in popularity, such as Messenger and Livestream, according to the people familiar with the company’s operations. On Friday, Facebook launched a competitor to video conference services Zoom and Houseparty, allowing up to 50 people to video conference at a time.

    After years of reputation problems due to Cambridge Analytica and other scandals, some employees say they are feeling a boost in morale, according to other people who work at the company, who asked to remain anonymous because they were not authorized to speak to the media. Even the newfound positive reception for the Facebook Portal — a much-ridiculed video chat device that all employees received for free to work from home — is a surprise.

    Facebook chief executive Mark Zuckerberg is on the media circuit, touting the company’s efforts to keep the public safe. He wrote an op-ed in The Washington Post about how data is key to survival, and sees the crisis as a potential moment of redemption for Facebook, according to people familiar with his thinking.

    Amazon executives have also launched a media blitz, touting the company’s role in supplying important goods to consumers.

    Amazon is leading the biggest hiring spree of the tech giants, announcing more than 175,000 new, mostly low-wage jobs in warehouses and delivery. The company is openly recruiting workers who have been laid off from other industries, as it has struggled to keep up with the surge in consumer demand.

    Google receives demand for documents from Justice Dept., acknowledging federal antitrust scrutiny

    Meanwhile, some of its warehouse workers have protested over unsafe working conditions, as dozens of warehouses have workers that tested positive for covid-19.

    “We’re investing heavily to keep our employees safe and to temporarily increase pay for associates — spending $500 million on pay increases alone through the end of April,” Amazon‘s Perlet added in the statement.
    Meanwhile, Bloomberg reported that Apple chief executive Tim Cook recently told employees that the company felt so comfortable in its cash position that it would continue investing in R&D throughout this year and did not anticipate layoffs.

    Big Tech’s ability to continue hiring and sustaining themselves through crises will not only give the companies an advantage in Silicon Valley, but in the economy at large. Many of the traditional industries expected to suffer — brick-and-mortar retail, food service, and media and entertainment — are the same industries that have been gradually gutted by technology since the last recession.

    Macy’s, which competes with Amazon, said it was furloughing most of its 125,000 employees last month. Condé Nast Publications, which competes for ad dollars with Facebook and Google, is planning major layoffs.

    Grocery Delivery Was Supposed to be the Ultimate Pandemic Lifeline. But It’s Falling Short.

    While analysts expect hits in revenue to both Google and Facebook for the first time, smaller ad platforms, publishers and social media rivals will fare even worse, analysts say. Smaller digital advertising firms, long struggling against the giants, have begun to announce waves of layoffs.

    And when the spending comes back, it will favor the biggest tech platforms over smaller digital ad companies and publishers, said Nicole Perrin, an analyst with eMarketer.

    “A lot of the traditional media and ad businesses have been in decline. The decline will happen faster this year, and a lot of that money will not come back, because it was slowly trickling away,” Perrin said.

    Still, some start-ups will thrive during the crisis. The user base of video conferencing service Zoom grew to 200 million users last month, up from 10 million in December, according to the company. Growing even faster than Zoom is video-chat app Houseparty, which has seen a 1,580 percent growth in downloads since March 15, according to app analytics firm AppAnnie. Grocery delivery app Instacart has experienced a 540 percent increase in downloads.

    Everyone seems to be using Zoom. But its Security Flaws Could Leave People at Risk.

    Analysts and investors expect that consumption patterns and habits will continue to change, potentially for the long term. That could also result in a new order among the start-ups that emerge or survive the crisis, said Roelof Botha, a partner at the Silicon Valley venture capital firm Sequoia Capital. He said he was already beginning to look for a new class of winners, automating everything from mortgages to garbage picking to data infrastructure needed to support remote work.

    “This is a shock to the system, and sometimes out of that shock emerges a new order,” Botha said. “Like the killing off of the dinosaurs, this reorders who gets to survive in the new era. It is the shock that accelerates the future that Silicon Valley has been building.”

  191. Anonymous

    20.09.2020 · Reply

    The Pandemic Accelerant: Digital Age Business Strategies:

    The digitization of the economy is gaining steam, with working from home, Edtech, e-commerce, e-fitness, and telehealth activities all being accelerated by the pandemic. Once the crisis subsides some telepresence activities will snap back, like a rubber band, to their pre-COVID levels. However, much of the digital acceleration will prove permanent. Hybrid models will be the most resilient and successful.
    From a macro perspective, digital platforms feature low marginal costs and increasing returns to scale. This creates winner-takes-all markets which favor global champions. Further, the asset-light business model—in which technology is increasingly being substituted for capital and labor—points to improved free cash flow margins and higher ROE. This will allow many companies to increase dividends and buybacks, keeping overall payout ratios well above historical norms.
    Additionally, digitization, like automation and globalization, is profoundly disinflationary, which implies “lower for even longer” interest rates. This is especially beneficial for long duration equities like tech.
    With an increasing proportion of activities moving from “bricks and mortar” to the virtual world, we expect digital platforms to represent the vast majority of equity market capitalization by the end of the decade, with tech, health care, and communications the most promising sectors.
    The last six months have been profoundly transformational, with the COVID shock acting as an accelerant for the digitization of the economy. This radical transition is especially advantageous for asset-light business models in the tech, health care, and communications sectors, but is also likely to turbo-charge a range of industries, including Edtech, telehealth, e-commerce and e-fitness. All companies will be acutely affected, although the biggest winners are platforms, with their economies of scale and low marginal costs.1

    “What is your business strategy in the digital age?” has become one of our favorite questions to ask management teams. If a company cannot provide a convincing response, we believe it will likely flounder and ultimately disappear. As the success of the big tech firms has demonstrated, “Data is the new oil,” with comparative advantage increasingly defined by the ability to aggregate content and consumers. With “bits” rapidly replacing “atoms,” we expect digital platforms to represent the vast majority of equity market capitalization by the end of the decade.
    “As Covid-19 impacts every aspect of our work and life, we’ve seen two years’ worth of digital transformation in two months.”
    — Satya Nadella, Microsoft CEO

    For investors, the COVID shock is best viewed as a forced experiment, compelling much of the economy online, into the digital sphere, and offering an opportunity to assess what works and what doesn’t. The pandemic massively accelerated the adoption of remote activities such as working, studying, shopping, consulting a physician and exercising from home. Once the pandemic subsides some telepresence activities will snap back, like a rubber band, to their pre-COVID levels. However, we believe much of the digital acceleration will be permanent. For most activities, hybrid models will prove most resilient and successful. Consequently, in coming years, technology—always the great disruptor—is likely to play an even more central role in shaping the modern economy and driving equity market returns.
    In terms of macro impact, the digitization and virtualization of the services sector is similar, in many respects, to the automation and globalization of manufacturing that occurred in recent decades. For a start, it will be profoundly disinflationary and lead to even more vexing difficulties in accurately measuring GDP.2 Moreover, tech disruption in services will be magnitudes larger than what occurred in the manufacturing sector, which itself was severe with long-lasting consequences for America’s political economy.
    The manufacturing experience also suggests wage growth will lag productivity gains, lowering unit labor costs and pushing up profit shares.The COVID Shock: Boosting Tech’s Wallet Share

    With the COVID-shock, the digital versus physical divergence has widened profoundly. While companies that rely exclusively on a physical footprint have struggled this year, digital businesses are thriving and gaining market share. Today, the digital economy represents about 38% of U.S. GDP and has been growing at an impressive multiple relative to overall output. Impressive, yet the COVID shock is likely to accelerate the transition from the world of “atoms” to the world of “bits” even further.

    “If you’re a shareowner in Amazon, you may want to take a seat, because we’re not thinking small.”
    — Jeff Bezos, Amazon CEO

    Even before the pandemic the digital economy was growing more than four times as quickly as the rest of the economy. With the lockdown-induced boost, this growth differential is likely to increase even further. While “lower for even longer” interest rates help buy time for the rising proportion of “zombie” companies3 they can’t escape the gale-force headwinds posed by the accelerating substitution of technology for labor and physical assets (bricks and mortar). As companies seek to improve their profitability in a slow growth world, this means capital-light models will prevail in all industries.
    While the digitization of the modern economy has been turbo-charged by the pandemic, that is not the only catalyst. Other critical factors include massive improvements in tech hardware, cloud computing4 the ongoing rollout of 5G, and exponential gains in AI efficiency. According to a study published by OpenAI in May, the cost to train AI is declining several orders of magnitude faster than the pace of Moore’s Law.5

    While the gains in AI efficacy are truly spectacular, computing power keeps improving as recent innovations in semiconductor design suggest Moore’s-law naysayers have been outmaneuvered yet again.6 This is important as one of the biggest beneficiaries of the pandemic is the semiconductor industry, given these devices are the key enabler of the connected world. Consequently, we believe the digitization of the economy, featuring the substitution of “bits” for “atoms,” is still in the early innings and, if anything, is gaining steam.

    Tech guru Benedict Evans stresses that tech was very small until recently, with the number of global computer users having quadrupled since Facebook was launched in 2004 (representing a 10% CAGR), with no signs yet of slowing down. Moreover, in a world in which “data is the new oil,” global internet traffic continues to grow at a 20%+ pace . To illustrate the myriad ways in which the pandemic has acted as an accelerant for the digitization and virtualization the economy, the next five sections discuss working from home, Edtech, e-commerce, e-fitness, and telehealth.

  192. Anonymous

    20.09.2020 · Reply

    Covid-19 in an urban world
    Welcome to the United Nations
    UN logologo
    COVID-19 Response
    busy sidewalk
    Scenes of daily life in Buenos Aires during the COVID-19 pandemic – people walk down a street in the city. UN Argentina/ Santiago Mele UN Argentina/ Santiago Mele
    LAUNCH OF POLICY BRIEF ON COVID-19 AND CITIES
    COVID-19 in an Urban World
    About the author
    António Guterres
    António Guterres is the ninth Secretary-General of the United Nations, who took office on 1st January 2017.

    Urban areas are ground zero of the COVID-19 pandemic, with 90 per cent of reported cases.

    Cities are bearing the brunt of the crisis – many with strained health systems, inadequate water and sanitation services, and other challenges.

    This is especially the case in poorer areas, where the pandemic has exposed deeply rooted inequalities.

    Today, we have an opportunity to reflect and reset how we live, interact and rebuild our cities.
    But cities are also home to extraordinary solidarity and resilience.

    Strangers helping each other, streets cheering in support of essential workers, local businesses donating life-saving supplies.

    We have seen the best of the human spirit on display.

    As we respond to the pandemic and work towards recovery, we look to our cities as hubs of community, human innovation and ingenuity.

    Today, we have an opportunity to reflect and reset how we live, interact and rebuild our cities.

    That is why we are launching a “Policy Brief on COVID-19 in the Urban World”.

    It offers three key recommendations.

    First, we need to ensure that all phases of the pandemic response tackle inequalities and long-term development deficits and safeguard social cohesion.

    We must prioritise those who are the most vulnerable in our cities, including guaranteeing safe shelter for all and emergency housing to those without homes.

    Access to water and sanitation is also vital.

    The inadequate state of public services in many cities requires urgent attention, particularly in informal settlements.

    Nearly one-quarter of the world’s urban population lives in slums.

    Local governments are already taking action – from prohibiting evictions during the crisis to putting in place new clean water stations in the most vulnerable areas.

    Second, we must strengthen the capacities of local governments.

    This requires decisive action – and deeper cooperation between local and national authorities.

    Stimulus packages and other relief should support tailored responses and boost local government capacity.

    Third, we must pursue a green, resilient and inclusive economic recovery.

    Many cities have created new bike lanes and pedestrian zones, reclaiming public spaces and improving mobility, safety and air quality.

    By focusing on high ecological transformation and job creation, stimulus packages can steer growth towards a low-carbon, resilient pathway and advance the Sustainable Development Goals.

    The rapid adoption of telecommuting illustrates how societies can transform seemingly overnight to confront urgent threats.

    We must act with the same urgency and resolve to transform cities and address the climate and pollution crises.

    Now is the time to rethink and reshape the urban world.

    Now is the moment to adapt to the reality of this and future pandemics.

    And now is our chance to recover better, by building more resilient, inclusive and sustainable cities.

  193. In the 1990s, as the digital revolution began to gather pace, some social commentators speculated that it would lead to the death of the city. People’s geographical location would become less important, the argument went, as they came to interact mostly in cyberspace. Two decades on, the opposite has happened: human beings continue to live very much in the physical realm, and early this century passing the turning point of more people living in urban than rural areas.

    The UN predicts that by 2050 the world’s urban population will be as big as the world’s total population in 2002. But what will the cities of tomorrow be like? People continue to be drawn to cities by the economic, social and creative opportunities they offer; large cities are more productive than rural areas, producing more patents and yielding higher returns on capital.

    McKinsey estimates that the world’s top 100 cities will account for 35 percent of global GDP growth between now and 2025. However, urbanization also presents major challenges. The world’s fastest growing cities have seen problems adjusting to growth and industrialization, choking under the burden of pollution, congestion and urban poverty.

    In the developed world, urban sprawl can lead to individual levels of resource consumption far exceeding those in the developing world. Urban settings magnify global threats such as climate change, water and food security and resource shortages, but also provide a framework for addressing them.

    If the future of cities cannot be one of unsustainable expansion, it should rather be one of tireless innovation. This report chronicles ten of the best examples from around the world of how cities are creating innovative solutions to a variety of problems.

    Many of these solutions are scalable, replicable and can be adapted to a variety of specific urban environments. Some are possible only due to new technologies while others apply technology to ideas that are as old as the city itself.

    Within these innovations, four principles surface again and again. They can be seen as a core framework to find innovative solutions to complex urban problems:

    Unleashing spare capacity: Many innovations cleverly make use of existing yet underutilized resources. Airbnb, for example, enables the renting out of unused private homes; co-locating schools and recreational facilities enables public-private sharing of space; and the circular economy provides opportunities to reuse, recycle and upcycle.
    Cutting out the peaks: From electricity and water to roads and public transport, upwards of 20% of capacity sits idle for much of the time ready to cope with demand peaks; cutting out these peaks with technology-enabled demand management or innovative pricing structures can significantly limit the burden on financial and natural resources.
    Small-scale infrastructure thinking: Cities will always need large-infrastructure projects, but sometimes smallscale infrastructure – from cycle lanes and bike sharing to the planting of trees for climate change adaptation – can also have a big impact on an urban area.
    People-centred innovation: The best way to improve a city is by mobilizing its citizens. From smart traffic lights to garbage taxes, innovations in technology, services and governance are not ends in themselves but means to shape the behaviour and improve the lives of the city’s inhabitants. All innovations should be centred on the citizen, adhering to the principles of universal design and usable by people of all ages and abilities.

  194. The top ten urban innovations are:

    (Digitally) Re-Programmable Space
    Example: A multi-story car park in Miami Beach also plays host to parties, yoga classes and weddings. The concrete building with floor slabs supported on wedge-shaped columns was completed in 2010 to offer naturally lit parking levels that can also be used for other activities above a row of shops and restaurants.
    Waternet: An Internet of Pipes
    Example: A team of MIT researchers, led by professors Carlo Ratti, Director of the Senseable City Lab in the Department of Urban Studies and Planning, and Eric Alm, Director of a laboratory in the Department of Biological Engineering, have developed a system to collect and analyse biochemical information from sewage water, what could be thought of as a “smart sewage platform”. The project, called Underworlds, is being tested in Cambridge, MA.
    Adopt a Tree through Your Social Network
    Example: Melbourne has developed a new website, Urban Forest Visual, which details the location, genus and lifespan of the city’s urban forest by precinct. The interactive tree map allows users to explore Melbourne’s tree data, learn more about the life expectancy and diversity of trees in the city, and submit questions.
    Augmented Humans: The Next Generation of Mobility
    Example: The Copenhagen Wheel transforms your bicycle into a smart electric hybrid. The Wheel contains a motor, batteries, multiple sensors, wireless connectivity and an embedded control system. The Wheel learns how you pedal and integrates seamlessly with your motion, multiplying your pedal power.
    Co-Co-Co: Co-generating, Co-heating, Co-cooling
    Example: Sydney’s Trigeneration Masterplan. The project will contribute to Sustainable Sydney 2030 by reducing the city’s annual carbon emissions by 3% and reducing energy bills for Town Hall and Town Hall House by an average of 320,000 USD per year over the life of the project.
    The Sharing City: Unleashing Spare Capacity
    Example: The internet makes it much cheaper for individuals to offer traditional goods and services to a larger market. As websites such as Airbnb show, making it possible to connect with customers anywhere in the world cuts transaction costs and shrinks the advantage of scale that larger chains hold.
    Mobility-on-Demand
    A recent initiative by the MIT SENSEable City Lab in partnership with Audi and GE, HubCab analyses taxi trips to explore the benefits and impacts of vehicle sharing in New York City. The data was derived from the records of over 150 million trips made by 13,586 registered taxis in Manhattan during 2011 (HubCab, 2014). The GPS-enabled taxis reported on the geographic coordinates (longitude and latitude) and time of each trip’s origin and destination, creating a map of pick-up and drop-off points.
    Medellin Revisited: Infrastructure for Social Integration
    Example: Medellín’s Metrocable was designed to improve transport and quality of life in informal settlements located on the mountainside, home to some of the city’s most disadvantaged communities.
    Smart Array: Intelligent Street Poles as a Platform for Urban Sensing
    Example: The Array of Things (AoT) is an urban sensing project, a network of interactive, modular sensor boxes that will be installed around Chicago to collect real-time data on the city’s environment, infrastructure, and activity for research and public use. AoT will essentially serve as a “fitness tracker” for the city, measuring factors that impact liveability in Chicago such as climate, air quality and noise.
    Urban Farming: Vertical Vegetables Contributors
    Example: Freight farming allows practically anyone to grow fresh produce inside of a standard 40’x8’x9.5’ shipping container. Brad McNamara and Jon Friedman proposed the idea after realizing that the world needed a more efficient way to grow and receive food. The idea was originally to create farms on rooftop greenhouses; however, after running into several logistic issues, the two decided to change the scene of farming to shipping containers.

  195. Anonymous

    20.09.2020 · Reply

    By 2050, more than two-thirds of the global population will reside in cities, and 92 per cent of this urban growth will occur in low- to middle-income countries.

    These trends represent a growing need to address emerging challenges and tap into new opportunities, especially as they relate to vulnerable children and youth.

    UNICEF in partnership with ARM, has developed an urbanization handbook, that outlines opportunities for design, technology and social impact communities to work together to create technological innovations that improve the lives of vulnerable children in cities. It highlights the urgent need for innovation on behalf of children in the context of a rapidly urbanizing planet, and also offers guidance on specific approaches and principles, through the lens of UNICEF’s innovation priorities. The handbook identifies five focus areas where the most pressing challenges for children in urbanizing areas intersect with the greatest opportunities for technology-based solutions: infrastructure, transport, basic services, connectivity, violence and hazards.

    Programme Menu
    Explore opportunities in Urban
    Programme
    Innovating for children in an urbanizing world
    Creating technological innovations that improve the lives of vulnerable children in cities
    Child sitting in Svay Pak Village
    Fani Llaurado
    By 2050, more than two-thirds of the global population will reside in cities, and 92 per cent of this urban growth will occur in low- to middle-income countries.

    These trends represent a growing need to address emerging challenges and tap into new opportunities, especially as they relate to vulnerable children and youth.

    UNICEF in partnership with ARM, has developed an urbanization handbook, that outlines opportunities for design, technology and social impact communities to work together to create technological innovations that improve the lives of vulnerable children in cities. It highlights the urgent need for innovation on behalf of children in the context of a rapidly urbanizing planet, and also offers guidance on specific approaches and principles, through the lens of UNICEF’s innovation priorities. The handbook identifies five focus areas where the most pressing challenges for children in urbanizing areas intersect with the greatest opportunities for technology-based solutions: infrastructure, transport, basic services, connectivity, violence and hazards.

    Urban Tech Bets Research Front Cover
    UNICEF
    Tech Bets for an Urban World is a body of work carried out by UNICEF, ARM and Dalberg that identifies digital technologies that deliver positive social impact for children and their families in cities, while expanding markets and delivering financial returns for technology companies and investors. It details the following six big ‘tech bets’, which reflect a subset of digital technologies that can have enormous social impact for urban women and children.

    Blended learning: platforms that allow teachers to integrate online tools in classrooms for better engagement and learning outcomes. Using blended learning approaches can afford better quality education, improve gender equality and increase opportunities for decent work and economic growth for 500–600 million children worldwide in UNICEF programme countries so that they can learn basic skills and have a better chance of staying in school.
    Multi-modal skilling: services that mix online education with in-person mentoring to expand access to the skills that people need to get better jobs. At scale, multi-modal skilling could afford better quality education, improve gender equality and increase opportunities for decent work and economic growth for 60–120 million young people in UNICEF programme countries by providing them with the relevant skills they need to thrive and access jobs.
    Smart recruiting for the informal economy: platforms that connect individuals and employers with workers for one-off or short-term jobs, finding the most suitable candidates for customers and providing additional protection and security for workers. Smart recruiting for the informal economy can provide a level playing field for 0.8–1.2 billion men and women around the world, lowering unemployment and improving gender equality, decent work and economic growth.
    Commuter ride-sharing: car pooling services offered to workers by employers to ensure they get to work safely, reduce their impact on the environment and reduce time wasted travelling to work instead of spending time with their families. At scale, commuter ride-sharing could provide safer, more efficient and better quality transportation for 350 million people around the world, making progress towards gender equality, reduced inequalities, decent work and economic growth.
    Smart water metering: Internet of things networks of sensors and meters that monitor the flow and/or quality of water, ultimately improving accessing to clean, fairly-priced water. Smart water metering could expand access to and the affordability and quality of water for 2.5–3 billion people worldwide and decrease the financial burden felt by the world’s poorest. This increases access to clean water and sanitation, supports good health and well-being, and reduces inequalities.
    Emergency response: platforms that link people in urgent need to the full range of public and private emergency response services through one interface. At scale, emergency response tech innovations could reach 3–3.5 billion people, bridging gaps to critical emergency care, particularly around childbirth, substantially reducing pregnancy-related deaths, and thereby improving good health and well-being, while reducing inequalities.

  196. Anonymous

    21.09.2020 · Reply

    Tackling Inequality in Cities is Essential for Fighting COVID-19
    More than 1 billion people live in slums and informal settlements worldwide, concentrated in developing cities like Mumbai, India. Social distancing may be impossible for many of them. Photo by Adrian Catalan Lazar/iStockPhoto
    The COVID-19 pandemic has created a disruptive new normal for everyone through shelter-in-place orders and social distancing guidelines. But for the billions of urban poor, these guidelines aren’t just burdensome; they’re essentially impossible.

  197. Anonymous

    21.09.2020 · Reply

    Social distancing is a critically important response to the pandemic, but it also assumes that residents have adequate space, services and social safety nets to survive such an order. This is simply not the reality across cities in Asia, Africa and Latin America.

  198. Anonymous

    21.09.2020 · Reply

    More than 1 billion people live in slums and informal settlements globally. As much as 50-80% of employment is informal in developing cities, from street vendors to minibus drivers to migrant workers. Many of these families are essentially surviving day-to-day, living in dense neighborhoods with unreliable and often shared access to basic services like water, sanitation and electricity. Many don’t have bank accounts, basic employment contracts or insurance. Their incomes and workplaces are not on any government agency’s radar. In short, they lack the resources to survive without defying lockdown orders.

  199. Anonymous

    21.09.2020 · Reply

    The shortcomings of recent social distancing orders are evident in cities like New Delhi, Bangkok, Lagos, Mexico City and Rio de Janeiro, where millions of residents feel their lives have been upended with little protection or access to support. The helplessness is widespread as families prepare for the worst.

  200. Anonymous

    21.09.2020 · Reply

    Recognizing and addressing the stark reality of urban inequality is essential for addressing the current pandemic. It can also help cities build back better and more resilient to future crises.

  201. Anonymous

    21.09.2020 · Reply

    Urban Inequality, India and COVID-19
    Perhaps no situation is more dire than in India, where a national lockdown with little notice ordered 1.3 billion people to self-isolate for at least 40 days. With the current guidance — from washing hands frequently to staying put — it’s unclear how the country’s 460 million urban residents will cope.

  202. Anonymous

    21.09.2020 · Reply

    Between 152-216 million people in India live in dense informal housing, or slums. It is common to see lines of shacks for migrant workers crowded at a river’s edge and other hazard-prone areas. WRI’s World Resources Report documented how one slum in Bangalore is 12 times denser than the city average, housing 140,000 people per square kilometer. In 2018, only 60% of residents could access piped water — and even then, water was only available in taps for an average of two hours per day, two to three days a week.

  203. Anonymous

    21.09.2020 · Reply

    In another slum in Mumbai, we found more than 2,000 people lacked access to piped water. While more than 70% of residents queued up for water delivered by tanker trucks every few days, the amount of water these households could access was far below the World Health Organization’s recommendation of 50 liters per day in non-emergency situations.

  204. Anonymous

    21.09.2020 · Reply

    In these circumstances, where washing your hands might mean traveling to a shared tap or drawing from a scarce household supply, self-isolation is not just unfeasible; it may threaten day-to-day survival needs.

  205. Anonymous

    21.09.2020 · Reply

    The same challenges apply to informal workers. A recent survey in Bangalore — where over 70% of the workforce is informal — showed that while many low-income workers were afraid of contracting COVID-19, most felt compelled to continue working for fear of losing income, jobs and the ability to feed their families.

  206. Anonymous

    21.09.2020 · Reply

    Food insecurity is at an all-time high, and without support, residents are seeing only two choices: starvation or disease risk. A week of dropped wages could mean they will lose their housing. For some, their work is their place of shelter.

  207. Anonymous

    21.09.2020 · Reply

    Often “invisible” to governments and other urban residents in the best of times, what happens to informal workers like street vendors and domestic workers during the COVID-19 pandemic could affect whole cities — rich and poor folks alike — and beyond. In response to the Modi government’s lockdown order, millions of urban migrant and informal workers are fleeing by foot back to their home villages. This could accelerate the spread of infection across India, putting many rural areas with little health care in immediate danger.

  208. How to Reduce Urban Inequality and Close the Services Gap
    In the long term, large-scale investments in infrastructure for water, sanitation, housing and health care are needed around the world to provide growing populations with essential services. And to keep cities humming as economic, cultural and political dynamos, these investments need to specifically improve access for those residents currently being left behind.

    But there are short-term strategies to help cities respond now, too. Communities and the citizens that comprise them should be seen as active agents with knowledge, energy and power to shape their response now and in the future. These strategies can give the urban poor more feasible options for getting through this period and help reduce the spread of COVID-19 for everyone:

  209. City agencies should provide access to basic water and sanitation facilities for free. Things like government-sponsored water tankers, mobile handwashing facilities (as seen in Kigali, Rwanda), and other forms of rapid response — especially in slums and vulnerable neighborhoods — could provide immediate relief. And, wherever possible, agencies should work through existing networks of private and alternate service providers to speed service delivery.

    National governments should process fiscal transfers to states/cities so they can immediately distribute cash assistance — through more creative means than usual, if necessary — to those who need it most. Cash transfers can protect traditional supply chains for essential goods. In Delhi, for example, the local government is setting up shelters and food distribution points to stop rural migration, though not at a fast-enough rate. Governments should leverage existing systems like ration cards to distribute subsidized food and other essential goods, too, but these need to be available for those without secure addresses or bank accounts. Partnerships with private companies can extend a city’s ability to distribute essential goods. In Bangalore, for example, a private food delivery platform has partnered with the state government, NGOs and commercial kitchens to serve 500,000 meals daily.

  210. Government and private health care providers must step up efforts to provide access to emergency services in cities’ most under-served areas, as well as help those who need to quarantine. Data on access to health services and COVID-19 testing locations can help cities pinpoint hotspots. For example, this map of Delhi highlights which areas would benefit most from emergency clinics. Decision-makers must also consider the effect of curtailed public transport systems, which frontline workers and clients still depend on every day, to get a full picture of urban risk. For example, the city of Bogotá, Colombia, is working with Despacio and NUMO to provide hundreds of free e-bikes to medical workers during the pandemic.

    City governments must work more closely with community leaders and NGOs that work in informal settlements and other at-risk communities – both to better understand what’s happening on the ground and communicate key health messages. For example, in Nairobi, Kenya, the city is working with UN-HABITAT to provide handwashing facilities in informal settlements. Slum dwellers in Rio de Janeiro have organized to create community solutions, such as donation distribution networks and public information campaigns, while holding authorities accountable for appropriate actions. One slum neighborhood will now have access to shared water taps pumped from back-up reservoirs, thanks to collaboration with the local water utility. Similarly, many urban research organizations and experts are gathering critical spatial data on how this pandemic is changing the landscape of urban risk, including access to health centers and basic housing, water and sanitation facilities. Cities should be aware of their own data limitations and open to new partnerships to help keep up in a fast-evolving situation.

  211. Responding Now Can Create More Resilient Cities in the Future
    Providing targeted emergency assistance now can create better preparedness for the future. Establishing deeper and more trusted partnerships with communities can lead to more responsive policies, budget allocations and channels of communication.

    Establishing more comprehensive data infrastructure and identifying high-risk locations — such as those where water access is dangerously low — can reduce future public health risks and inform urban planning. In the 1990s, a plague outbreak in Surat, India, led to the creation of a citywide health monitoring cell in the municipal government that’s helping the city respond to COVID-19 today. Likewise, East Asian cities like Hong Kong and Singapore have been able to respond better to COVID-19 in part because of public health surveillance systems set up in response to the SARS outbreak from 2002-2003.

    Closing the urban services divide can help cities build back better and more equitably to better withstand the next crisis. Protecting and empowering the most vulnerable helps create more sustainable, thriving environments for everyone.

  212. Anonymous

    21.09.2020 · Reply

    As the coronavirus spreads across the globe, it appears to be setting off a devastating feedback loop with another of the gravest forces of our time: economic inequality.

    In societies where the virus hits, it is deepening the consequences of inequality, pushing many of the burdens onto the losers of today’s polarized economies and labor markets. Research suggests that those in lower economic strata are likelier to catch the diseases.

    This mutually reinforcing cycle, experts warn, may be raising the toll of the virus as it is widens the socioeconomic divides that are thought to be major drivers of right-wing populism, racial animosity and deaths of despair — those resulting from alcoholism, suicide or drug overdoses.

    “These things are so interconnected,” said Nicole A. Errett, a public health expert who co-directs a center on extreme event resilience at the University of Washington. “Pre-existing social vulnerabilities only get worse following a disaster, and this is such a perfect example of that.”

    Because each low-income family forced to accept a higher risk of exposure can infect others, she added, the consequences of inequality, while most obviously felt by the poor, “put the broader society at risk.”

  213. Anonymous

    21.09.2020 · Reply

    How Inequality Worsens the Coronavirus
    Two major risk factors are thought to make the coronavirus deadlier for those who catch it: old age and pre-existing health conditions.

  214. UN-HABITAT STRATEGIC PLAN 2020-2023

    Dear Colleagues,Dear Friends,It gives me great pleasure to present UN-Habitat’s Strategic Plan for the period 2020-2023.The basis of the Plan is UN-Habitat’s new vision of “a better quality of life for all in an urbanizing world”. This vision is encapsulated in the Plan’s 4 domains of change namely:• Reduced spatial inequality and poverty in communities across the urban – rural continuum; • Enhanced shared prosperity of cities and regions; • Strengthened climate action and improved urban environment; and • Effective urban crisis prevention and response. Whilst the formulation of the Plan was a major task, I expect its implementation to be both challenging and rewarding. For the agency, we now have a robust and clear strategic focus to guide our work in positively transforming lives in cities and communities around the world. We are also well-positioned to take a leading role in this mission for we have a significant presence in Asia and Africa where 90 per cent of urban growth is forecasted to happen in the next 30 years. In fact, by 2050 seventy per cent of the world population is predicted to live in urban settlements. Well-planned and well-governed cities are therefore the future as they will help address issues related to poverty, social exclusion and spatial inequality, shared prosperity, climate and the environment, and various forms of crisis. This was reinforced in Quito in 2016 at Habitat III, when Member States adopted the New Urban Agenda, a framework that contributes to the implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Sustainable urban development can have a positive catalytic impact on development and deliver improved living conditions for those furthest behind. Well-planned urbanization resulting in efficient cities and towns can help drive the sustainable development agenda across social and cultural change, environmental protection and economic growth. In addition, sustainable urban transformation presents an opportunity to work with all types of actors and communities, particularly those traditionally excluded from such processes. But we must act now.The implementation of the Strategic Plan must continue to reflect our new vision and renewed focus on impact. Consequently, we are firmly moving beyond only focusing on processes and outputs to being more outcome and impact-oriented. In this regard, the implementation of the Plan will be driven through global flagship programmes, which will have the benefits of (i) reducing fragmentation in our work, including a better connection between normative and operational elements; (ii) increasing predictability of funding and enhancing flexibility in the implementation of priorities agreed in the Strategic Plan;
    vi / UN-HABITAT STRATEGIC PLAN 2020-2023(iii) establishing long term partnerships as well as donors and countries commitment; (iv) strengthening visibility and global positioning; and (v) enhancing horizontal and vertical integration of sustainable urbanization concerns.The successful implementation of flagship programmes will require the identification of “champions” including countries and cities that will strongly promote and provide global visibility to our strategic programmes. Internally, we will need to develop (i) a thorough programme implementation manual, with state-of-the-art procedures, workflows and capacity building; and (ii) a monitoring and evaluation system, including an online interactive platform accessible to all partners. In addition, we will establish multi-partner trust-funds, which will constitute the financing vehicles of the flagship programmes.The Strategic Plan 2020-2023, which strongly contributes to the implementation and monitoring of the SDGs and the New Urban Agenda, is the result of a large internal and external consultative and participatory process, which started in April 2018 and culminated in May 2019 in the adoption of the Plan by the first session of the UN-Habitat Assembly.

  215. Internally, we organised more than 100 meetings and town halls with both Headquarters and our field-based staff. With our UN sister agencies, 11 entities (UN Women, IFAD, UNICEF, WHO, IOM, FAO, UNISDR, Peace Building Support Office, UNDP, UNHCR, ESCWA) were involved in the process. Moreover, eleven networks of partners were engaged.

  216. The feedback received throughout this process was extremely positive and new areas of partnerships have emerged.I recognise that the Strategic Plan 2020-203 is ambitious. It is so because it repositions UN-Habitat as a major global entity, a centre of excellence and innovation that (i) refocuses its niche as the thought leader and go-to agency setting the global discourse and agenda on sustainable urban development, (ii) drives political discussions,

  217. I agree with the sustainable comments Ephraim made above

  218. The Strategic Plan creates a strong narrative of change, clearly setting out the relationship between sustainable urbanization and the broader overall notion of sustainable development. It is focused on creating a positive impact and outcomes for those currently being left behind, including women and youth, in cities and other human settlements. It is only through a clear, transformative strategy, partnerships and a fresh and innovative vision of development that it is possible to respond effectively to persistent and new development problems, including extreme poverty, socioeconomic inequality, slums, social exclusion and marginalization, gender-based discrimination, Inequality is rising in the cities of both the developing and developed world. In developing countries, slums and informal settlements, which currently accommodate close to 1 billion people, are the physical manifestation of urban poverty and inequalityhumanitarian crises, conflict, air pollution, climate change and high unemployment, all of which are increasingly concentrated in urban areas. A holistic approach towards an urbanizing world, connecting cities and other human settlements, taking into consideration all segments of society, can help to advance sustainable solutions for the benefit of all.

  219. What is sponge City concept?
    A Sponge City is a city that has the capacity to mainstream urban water management into the urban planning policies and designs. … City governments at all institutional levels have to support the implementation of the Sponge City approach in new built-up areas of city districts, industrial parks and development zones.
    How do sponge cities work?
    A sponge city more or less makes existing urban regions absorbent. These unique cities implement natural materials into their architecture to soak up rainwater, instead of allowing it to flood areas. The absorbed water seeps underground, allowing people to create intra-city wells.
    Are sponges permeable?
    The natural surfaces, such as grass, earth or sand can absorb some of the rainwater. We call these areas permeable, which means that the ground can absorb water like a sponge or a paper towel.

  220. Anonymous

    21.09.2020 · Reply

    Was Melbourne a planned city?
    Read about Melbourne’s strategic planning history. Melbourne was founded in 1835 and was officially declared a city by Queen Victoria in 1847. … The Plan, named the Plan for General Development of the Metropolitan Town Planning Commission, proposed a planning scheme to prevent ‘misuse’ of land and protect property values.
    How is a city planned?
    When planning a city, planners must consider many factors, including the economy, the environment, and cultural and transportation needs. City planners also must understand current uses of existing buildings, roads and facilities in their city, as well as how these uses may affect the city in the future.
    Which is the oldest planned city in the world?
    Jaipur
    Created in 1726, Jaipur is considered India’s first “planned” city in the Common Era. Unlike other medieval cities where the settlements grew organically over time, Jaipur was conceived and constructed in a single phase.
    What is the newest city in the world?
    Here’s a look at 7 of the world’s newest cities:

    Putrajaya, Malaysia. …
    Astana, Kazakhstan. …
    Songdo, South Korea. …
    Naypyidaw, Myanmar. …
    King Abdullah Economic City, Saudi Arabia. …
    Rawabi, West Bank. …
    Sejong City, South Korea.
    Which city is not a planned city?
    The green city ofChandigarh is India’s one of the early planned cities post independence and governed directly by the Union Government. The master plan of the city known for its architecture and urban design, regarded as perfect cities of the world to live in.
    Which city is planned in grid pattern?
    Built over 250 years ago, Jaipur was a city far ahead of its time — a planned city designed and built in a grid pattern.

  221. What is sponge City concept?
    A Sponge City is a city that has the capacity to mainstream urban water management into the urban planning policies and designs. … City governments at all institutional levels have to support the implementation of the Sponge City approach in new built-up areas of city districts, industrial parks and development zones.
    How do sponge cities work?
    A sponge city more or less makes existing urban regions absorbent. These unique cities implement natural materials into their architecture to soak up rainwater, instead of allowing it to flood areas. The absorbed water seeps underground, allowing people to create intra-city wells.
    Are sponges permeable?
    The natural surfaces, such as grass, earth or sand can absorb some of the rainwater. We call these areas permeable, which means that the ground can absorb water like a sponge or a paper towel.

    i agree with Gregory

  222. Was Melbourne a planned city?
    Read about Melbourne’s strategic planning history. Melbourne was founded in 1835 and was officially declared a city by Queen Victoria in 1847. … The Plan, named the Plan for General Development of the Metropolitan Town Planning Commission, proposed a planning scheme to prevent ‘misuse’ of land and protect property values.
    How is a city planned?
    When planning a city, planners must consider many factors, including the economy, the environment, and cultural and transportation needs. City planners also must understand current uses of existing buildings, roads and facilities in their city, as well as how these uses may affect the city in the future.
    Which is the oldest planned city in the world?
    Jaipur
    Created in 1726, Jaipur is considered India’s first “planned” city in the Common Era. Unlike other medieval cities where the settlements grew organically over time, Jaipur was conceived and constructed in a single phase.
    What is the newest city in the world?
    Here’s a look at 7 of the world’s newest cities:

    Putrajaya, Malaysia. …
    Astana, Kazakhstan. …
    Songdo, South Korea. …
    Naypyidaw, Myanmar. …

    This instances expressed are sustainable

  223. Anonymous

    22.09.2020 · Reply

    Truly sustainable cities are all about balance

    New urban developments kick off daily. But are we getting closer to sustainable city ideals? How many of places with an abundance of greenery and smart tech are really cases of sustainable humans flourishing?

  224. Anonymous

    22.09.2020 · Reply

    Essential elements of a sustainable city include renewable and local resources, self-sufficiency, green infrastructure, closed material loops and overall efficiency. Add sustainability culture, equality, and wellbeing, and you have it. Many cities around the globe are getting closer than ever towards that ideal.

  225. Anonymous

    22.09.2020 · Reply

    AGE-OLD FORERUNNERS
    Surprisingly, the most sustainable cities of today are not new, futuristic projects, but those with centuries of history. According to the Arcadis Sustainable Cities Index of 2018 London, Stockholm, Edinburgh, Singapore and Vienna make the top five. The index focuses on sustainability from citizens’ perspectives, looking into a variety of issues, including planning, governance, and adaptability.

  226. Anonymous

    22.09.2020 · Reply

    Particularly relevant is the case of London. Known once as one of the most polluted cities in the world, it has recently adopted ambitious strategies on climate neutrality, renewables and green transport, showing that even old cities can embark on sustainability transformations. The city still struggles with environmental quality, affordability and traffic congestion, but its dynamic economy and ambitious environmental agendas suggest that a greener future is on the horizon.

  227. Anonymous

    22.09.2020 · Reply

    Meanwhile, Stockholm and Vienna are among leaders when it comes to impacts on the planet. Vienna is famous for its sustainable urban mobility and organic farming (860 hectares of land around the city), while Stockholm leads in holding sustainable events, generating biofuel from sewage and monitoring the city’s environmental performance with smart sensors. Both cities are famous for supporting green innovations, sourcing sustainable produce and enacting dedicated renewables policies.

  228. Anonymous

    22.09.2020 · Reply

    Stockholm is one of the global leaders when it comes to holding sustainable events.
    THE MANY ROADS TOWARDS SUSTAINABILITY
    But what about other green cities? Why didn’t they make it to the top five? First of all, today’s sustainability standards are very high and even though many cities may aspire to achieve them only a few will get there. They may still end up achieving a 75% sustainability score as they aim for a balance between various criteria.

  229. Anonymous

    22.09.2020 · Reply

    Second, the global imbalance in living standards leaves European, as well as a few Asian and U.S. cities, on the top while many others are left behind. The current concentration of wealth makes sustainability a dream for many urban habitats. Most African cities have landed at the bottom of urban sustainability indexes but could have huge potential to lead under proper investment.

  230. Anonymous

    22.09.2020 · Reply

    Finally, while there are certain criteria for what a sustainable city means, there are many ways to get there and a single unified metric may not always capture the unique features of each particular city. Outside certain urban centers, there are hundreds of others that lead on innovation, climate action, and green housing, serving as examples of inspiration.

  231. Anonymous

    22.09.2020 · Reply

    New York is famous for its stunning green infrastructure along the coast, which makes the city resilient to climate change. It is also investing heavily in renewables and dedicated zero waste policies. Meanwhile, Barcelona, Tokyo, Portland, and Montreal are competing with Copenhagen to be the world’s most bike-friendly city.

  232. Anonymous

    22.09.2020 · Reply

    When it comes to sustainable architecture and green infrastructure, Singapore and Paris top the list. Singapore is out to be one of the greenest cities globally, including having 80% of its architecture sustainable by 2030. Marina One, Gardens by the Bay and Singapore Airport are just a few among the many green architectural wonders of the city-state.

  233. Anonymous

    22.09.2020 · Reply

    Meanwhile, authorities in Paris are working to make the city a green destination for tourists and planning to transform large city areas into urban forests by 2050.

  234. Anonymous

    22.09.2020 · Reply

    Changi Airport in Singapore is home to over 250 species. Other sustainable features include the use of renewables, composting and recycled materials in building design.
    THE LIMITS OF TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION
    However, development focused on a particular sustainability feature also has its downside. Futuristic green cities don’t always end up as sites flourishing with life, despite all the smart tech and hard work put into them.

    Masdar City in Abu Dhabi has been one of the UAE’s most ambitious urban sustainability and zero-carbon projects, built in the desert and funded by revenues from oil and gas. Partly due to the financial crisis and partly due to its high-end agenda, the city is currently home to less than 10% of the projected 50,000 inhabitants and slowly shifting its zero-carbon plans towards carbon-neutral.

    Masdar isn’t alone. Dozens of other futuristic urban sustainability projects are slowly turning into ghost towns, showing that no technology will save us if economic rationale, equality, affordability, and social cohesion are left behind.

    Masdar may become a ghost town or a green miracle in the desert.
    Despite amazing achievements, many other forerunners are also far from perfect. Stockholm, New York, and Vienna are still burning waste to produce energy despite much better alternatives. Ensuring that something is local or renewable doesn’t always mean it is sustainable, while smart urban growth hailed by global organizations is not always a smart move for nature.

    Yet the successes of sustainable cities show that progress is possible. Effective planning and urban governance, as well as a focus on livability, are all essential elements of sustainable cities. Emerging sustainable technologies promise a thrilling future. Still, even the most developed sustainable cities of tomorrow will have a few things to learn from ecovillages and slow cities that have already learned to live sustainably in the now.

  235. Severe air pollution links to higher mortality in COVID-19 patients: The “double-hit” hypothesis.

    In areas of SARS-CoV-2 outbreak worldwide mean air pollutants concentrations vastly exceed the maximum limits. Chronic exposure to air pollutants have been associated with lung ACE-2 over-expression which is known to be the main receptor for SARS-CoV-2. The aim of this study was to analyse the relationship between air pollutants concentration (PM 2.5 and NO2) and COVID-19 outbreak, in terms of transmission, number of patients, severity of presentation and number of deaths.

  236. Methods
    COVID-19 cases, ICU admissions and mortality rate were correlated with severity of air pollution in the Italian regions.

    Results
    The highest number of COVID-19 cases were recorded in the most polluted regions with patients presenting with more severe forms of the disease requiring ICU admission. In these regions, mortality was two-fold higher than the other regions.

    Conclusions
    From the data available we propose a “double-hit hypothesis”: chronic exposure to PM 2.5 causes alveolar ACE-2 receptor overexpression. This may increase viral load in patients exposed to pollutants in turn depleting ACE-2 receptors and impairing host defences. High atmospheric NO2 may provide a second hit causing a severe form of SARS-CoV-2 in ACE-2 depleted lungs resulting in a worse outcome.

  237. We must consistently seek ways to improves our cities and rural areas, because whatsoever havoc either of both regions create will be suffered by all. Taking deliberate action is key.

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